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Four-One-One Bullying

NCJ Number
Date Published
September 2004
40 pages
Following the provision of basic information on bullying, this report reviews the research on bullying and provides research-based practical guidance for schools, parents, and students in countering bullying.
The Mayo Clinic and the Journal of the American Medical Association define “bullying” as a type of aggression in which the behavior is intended to harm or disturb the victim; there is an imbalance of power between the perpetrator and the victim; and the behavior occurs repeatedly over time. The first section of this report distinguishes between normal conflict and bullying, provides examples of bullying, profiles bullies and their victims, and indicates where most bullying occurs. The review of research on bullying presents statistics on the prevalence and frequency of bullying at various grade levels, the short-term and long-term adverse effects of being bullied and being a bully, and differences in bullying and its effects related to gender and age. A separate section focuses on research related to the link between being bullied and suicide. In offering practical guidance based on research, this report advises that the role of teachers and school administrators is critical. They must understand the nature and consequences of bullying and model their own behavior to avoid being bullies to their students. Advice for structuring the school environment and personnel practices to prevent and counter bullying includes accepting that bullying inevitably occurs among students, determining the nature and extent of bullying in the school, identifying when and where bullying is most likely to occur, making clear to students and school personnel what constitutes bullying and how the school will respond to it, conducting educational sessions for students and staff on the nature of bullying and how it can be prevented and reduced, and establishing mediation procedures for dealing with school-based conflicts. Extensive listing of resources and references

Date Published: September 1, 2004