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Transnational Organized Crime: The Indian Perspective (From UNAFEI Annual Report for 2000 and Resource Material Series No. 59, P 570-587, 2002, -- See NCJ-200221)

NCJ Number
Shankar P. Singh
Date Published
October 2002
18 pages
This document describes transnational organized crime in India.
Criminal gangs have been operating in India since ancient times. The purpose of organized crime in India is monetary gain. Organized crime is at its worst in Mumbai, the commercial capital of the country. Organized crime exists in other cities too, though not to the same extent as in Mumbai. Ahmedabad has been a hotbed of liquor Mafia because of a prohibition policy. A boom in construction activities in Bangalore has provided a fertile breeding ground for organized crime. The three major transnational organized criminal groups are Dawood Ibrahim Gang, Chhota Rajan Gang, and Babloo Shrivastava Gang. Illicit drug trafficking is the most significant transnational organized crime and has become a serious issue confronting both developing and developed countries. The illicit drug trade has centered around five major narcotic substances: heroin, hashish, opium, herbal cannabis, and methaqualone. India has been used by drug traffickers as a transit country and has resulted in an increase of drug abuse. The Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act of 1985 provides for a minimum punishment of 10 years, rigorous imprisonment and a fine of 100,000 Rupees extendable to 20 years rigorous imprisonment and a fine of 200,000 Rupees. India also has the problem of arms trafficking across the border. India is both a country of origin and destination for trafficking in women. The Indian “Hawala” or “Hundi” system is used to transfer money through unofficial channels, normally outside banking channels used by businessmen. The use of traditional investigative methods to combat transnational organized crime has proved to be both difficult and ineffective. Controlled delivery techniques have proven an important enforcement tool in identifying the principles involved in drug trafficking and other major smuggling offenses. Other tools are electronic surveillance, undercover operations, immunity systems, and witness and victim protection programs.