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Identifying and Embedding Brokers into a Multi-tiered System of Services to Reduce the Bystander Effect Leading to a Reduction in School Violence: End of Grant Report

NCJ Number
Date Published
10 pages

This report summarizes the findings collected from more than 4,000 students in Kentucky via a comprehensive survey in order to determine levels of social relationships and leadership indicators.


The authors examine the findings from data collected over an extended period due to effects from the Covid-19 pandemic, which impacted data collection timeline between cohorts three and four, along with social network data among school-aged youth. The report describes the various impacts that the Covid-19 pandemic had on data collection methods, overall participation, as well as the project timeline. Tables included in the report depict the indicators that were assessed, including self-report indicators, peer-report, and objective school data; the number of brokers across cohorts who completed the year-long program for 2016-2017 school year through 2021-2022 school year; an overview of Campbell County and two comparison school districts; total violence and harassment indices between districts across time-frames; percentage of disciplinary decisions across districts and time-frames; and the frequency of total violence indices, by grade. Results discussed address project outcomes in the context of the authors’ three guiding hypotheses: they expected to find significantly lower violence rates in Campbell County schools over the course of the study; students that received the anti-violence program would disclose information prior to violent activities to key adult figures, such as program officers or counselors, through a relationship explained in part by the students’ enhanced social resiliency variables; and the degree to which social resilience leads to higher disclosure would be moderated by the involvement brokers.

Date Published: January 1, 2023