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Beyond the Breakfast Club: Variability in the Effects of Suspensions by School Context

NCJ Number
Date Published
26 pages

Relying on a sample of just over 2,000 students within 26 schools, this study examined whether school climate shaped the impact of suspension on future delinquency and later school sanctions.


Rather than mitigating behavioral issues, exclusionary school disciplinary practices can increase student misbehavior and school dropout; however, the impact these sanctions have on students may vary based on school climate, particularly whether the environment is inclusive or punitive. The current study found that suspension was associated with increased misbehavior and additional sanctioning, regardless of school climate. These results suggest that suspensions can cause harm no matter the nature of the environment in which they are administered. Based on these findings, the study recommends that schools work to reduce their use of exclusionary punishments. 3 tables, 1 figure, and 41 references (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2018