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Probation, Parole, and Community Field Services - Policy, Structure, and Process

NCJ Number
F A Hussey; D E Duffee
Date Published
364 pages
This introductory-level textbook describes the roles, values, goals, practices, and problems of community correctional officials, mainly in probation and parole work.
Initial discussions concern the convicted offender and the criminal justice system and highlight some theories of crime causation and historical influences on disposition of the offender. Discussion of the evolution and essence of probation considers early developments, selection and conditions for probation, probation and parole revocation, and the community resources management team (CRMT). Next, the evolution of parole is reviewed, including the origins of parole, development of the Crofton system in Ireland, and early initial developments in the U.S. Developments from 1900-1950, Federal reform efforts, current (1980) Federal parole laws, and trends are detailed. Court processing, sentencing models, factors involved in sentencing, and current issues are analyzed. While one chapter focuses on probation and parole in an organizational context, another discusses the offender's perception of the criminal justice system, a perception influenced by such factors as plea bargaining and sentencing disparities. Intricacies of correctional fieldwork are examined in a chapter on presentence investigations. In addition, some common therapy and counseling techniques are reviewed, and contemporary issues associated with the organization and delivery of correctional services are considered. Examples of community corrections programs are pointed out in a discussion of community corrections as a preferred alternative to institutional corrections. Next, built-in problems of the client-officer system are investigated, such as the offender's concern for need fulfillment, the role of self-concept and change, and the field officer's concerns of self-image, intervention styles, and professionalism. Concluding chapters cover the productive involvement of correctional services in the human service system. The discussion deals with the topics of interorganizational exchange, organizational boundaries and bureaucratic structure, and methods of mobilizing services as well as the effectiveness of probation, parole, and community field services. Finally, the demands of the rehabilitative objective are reviewed along with the goals of probation and parole and the issues of effectiveness and survival. Figures, chapter notes, a glossary, and an index are provided.