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Physical Characteristics of Spatter Stains on Textiles: Influence of Impact Surface Texture, Blood Drop Volume and Blood Drop Velocity

NCJ Number
Tiegang Fang
Date Published
27 pages

This is the Final Research Report for a project with the goal of producing a ‘‘detailed, fundamental understanding of the physics and dynamics of airborne blood as it impacts textile surfaces during the creation of bloodstains, particularly for blood droplets with diameters ranging from a few hundred microns up to four millimeters that represent the case of impact spatter formation.”


The project involved the performance of three tasks: 1) the creation and characterization of target textile surfaces with complex structure; 2) the investigation and analysis of blood droplet impact dynamics on textile surfaces; and 3) the investigation and analysis of blood droplet wicking dynamics and the resultant bloodstains on textile surfaces. Project findings are presented under the following five topics: 1) blood drop impact and wicking dynamics – the influence of impact velocity; 2) blood drop impact and wicking dynamics – the influence of fabric type; 3) blood drop impact and wicking dynamics – influence of surface inclination; 4) single micro blood drop generation and impact dynamics; and 5) bloodstains formed on fabrics. The project constructed a multiscale imaging system for bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA); produced high-speed videos of the blood-drop impacting process and resulting bloodstains; and constructed and tested a customized, piezoelectric single blood droplet generation system. 11 figures and 14 references