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Historical, International & Contemporary Look at Community Supervision with a Spotlight on "STICS"

NCJ Number
R. E. Brown
Date Published
9 pages
This article presents a historical, international, and contemporary overview of the role of community supervision in probation and parole cases, with an emphasis on the STICS (Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision) model developed in Canada.
This article examines community supervision in Canada from the past to the present and into the future. The author notes that community supervision is the most prevalent form of correctional control in Canada, with approximately 95,000 offenders under probation or parole in the country in 2009. The author examines the use of community supervision, especially through the principles of the risk, need, and responsivity (RNR) model. Highlights are presented on evaluations of effective community supervision programs, including the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS) model developed in Canada, the Proactive Community Supervision (PCS) initiative implemented in Maryland, and the Effective Practices for Community Supervision (EPICS) training. The STICS supervision model is firmly rooted in RNR principles and emphasizes officers' interventions that facilitate pro-social attitudinal/cognitive change in moderate to high risk offenders. The article also discusses the essential role that parole supervision plays in the relationship between the parole officer and the parolee.