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Probation and Parole in the United States, 2019 (Bulletin)

NCJ Number
Date Published
July 2021
34 pages

This Bulletin presents findings of the U.S. Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS’) Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, and Federal Justice Statistics Program for 2019, which collected data on adults placed on supervision (entries) or removed from supervision (exits) during the reporting year.  


The number of adults on probation or parole in the United States decreased from 4,399,000 at year-end 2018 to 4,357,700 at year end 2019. This 0.9-percent decline was driven solely by a reduction in probationers, who composed 80 percent of the community supervision population. During this period, the number of probationers decreased from 3,540,000 to 3,492,900, a 1.3-percent decrease. The number of parolees remained comparatively steady, increasing slightly from 878,000 to 878,900, a 0.1-percent increase. Among all adults in the United States, about 1 in 59 were under some form of community supervision at year-end 2019. During 2019, the probation population increased in 22 states and declined in 27 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. federal system. The parole population increased in 26 states and the U.S. federal system and decreased in 23 states and the District of Columbia. An analysis of the trend in adult probation and parole for the period 2000 to 2019 found that the adult probation rate declined 25 percent, and the adult parole rate remained stable. In 2019, probation exits exceeded entries for the 11th consecutive year. The methodology of data collection and analysis is described. 21 tables and 6 figures

Date Published: July 1, 2021