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Factors Associated with Employment Among a Cohort of Injection Drug Users

NCJ Number
Drug and Alcohol Review Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Dated: May 2010 Pages: 293-300
Date Published
May 2010
8 pages

One of the most substantial costs of drug use is lost productivity and social functioning, including holding of a regular job. However, little is known about employment patterns of injection drug users (IDU). This study sought to identify factors that were associated with legal employment among IDU.


From 1 June 1999 to 30 November 2003, 330 (27.7 percent) of 1,190 participants reported having a job at some point during follow up. Employment rates remain somewhat stable throughout the study period (9-12.4 percent). Factors positively and significantly associated with legal employment in multivariate analysis were male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78) and living outside the Downtown Eastside (AOR = 1.85). Factors negatively and significantly associated with legal employment included older age (AOR = 0.97); Aboriginal ethnicity (AOR = 0.72); HIV-positive serostatus (AOR = 0.32); HCV-positive serostatus (AOR = 0.46); daily heroin injection (AOR = 0.73); daily crack use (AOR = 0.77); public injecting (AOR = 0.50); sex trade involvement (AOR = 0.49); recent incarceration (AOR = 0.56); and unstable housing (AOR = 0.57). The results suggest a stabilising effect of employment for IDU and socio-demographic, drug use and risk-related barriers to employment. There is a strong case to address these barriers and to develop innovative employment programming for high-risk drug users. The authors describe the employment patterns of participants of a longitudinal cohort study of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. They then use generalised estimating equations (GEE) to determine statistical associations between legal employment and various intrinsic, acquired, behavioural and circumstantial factors. (Published Abstract)

Date Published: May 1, 2010