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Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy

NCJ Number
Forensic Science International Volume: 238 Dated: 2014 Pages: 91-95
Date Published
5 pages

Since assays for determining human origin for blood are currently time-consuming and destructive to the sample, this article reports on research that demonstrates Raman spectroscopy can be effectively applied as a non-destructive technique for differentiating human blood from a wide survey of animal blood.


The characterization of suspected blood stains is an important aspect of forensic science. Determining the origin of a blood stain is a critical, yet overlooked, step in establishing its relevance to the crime. In the reported study, a Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model was built from a training set of the near infrared Raman spectra from 11 species. Various performance measures, including a blind test and external validation, confirmed the discriminatory performance of the chemometric model. The model demonstrated 100-percent accuracy in its differentiation between human and nonhuman blood. These findings further demonstrate a great potential of Raman spectroscopy to the field of serology, especially for species identification of a suspected blood stain. (publisher abstract modified)


Date Published: January 1, 2014