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Development of a Novel Five-dye Panel for Human Identification Insertion/deletion (INDEL) Polymorphisms

NCJ Number
Journal of Forensic Sciences Volume: Online Dated: 2023
Date Published
January 2024

This paper discusses the development of a five-day panel for human insertion/deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms.


In this study, a set of INDEL Human Identification Markers (HID) was curated from the 1000 Genomes Project, employing criteria including a fixation index (FST) ≤ 0.06, minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.2, and high allele frequency divergence. In summary, the 33-loci INDEL-HID panel exhibited robust recovery with low-template and degraded samples and proved effective for individualization within a small sample set. A panel of 33 INDEL-HIDs was optimized and validated following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, utilizing a five-dye multiplex electrophoresis system. A small sample set (n = 79 unrelated individuals) was genotyped to assess the assay's performance. The validation studies exhibited reproducibility, inhibition tolerance, ability to detect a two-person mixture from a 4:1 to 1:6 ratio, robustness with challenging samples, and sensitivity down to 125 pg of DNA. DNA analysis of forensic case samples relies on short tandem repeats (STRs), a key component of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) used to identify individuals. However, limitations arise when dealing with challenging samples, prompting the exploration of alternative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion (INDELs) polymorphisms. Unlike SNPs, INDELs can be differentiated easily by size, making them compatible with electrophoresis methods. It is possible to design small INDEL amplicons (<200 bp) to enhance recovery from degraded samples. (Published Abstract Provided)

Date Published: January 1, 2024