[Graphic Version], [Adobe Reader Version]


                    A Report to:

                    The Assistant Attorney General
                    for the 
                    Office of Justice Programs


                    The Office of Justice Programs
                     Family Violence Working Group

                    June 1995

          "Unless we do something about violence in the home,
          we'll never be able to do something about violence
          in the streets."

          Attorney General Janet Reno
          At the American Medical Association National Conference
          on Family Violence, Washington, D.C.  March 13, 1994

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Mission and Goals of the OJP Family Violence Working Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

II.    Problem Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

III.   Family Violence Programs in the Office of Justice Programs                 

       A.  Bureau of Justice Assistance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

       B.  Bureau of Justice Statistics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

       C.  National Institute of Justice  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

       D.  Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
       E.  Office for Victims of Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

       F.  Violence Against Women Grants Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

IV. OJP Publications on Family Violence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

V.  OJP Family Violence Contacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47I.  MISSION AND GOALS OF THE OJP FAMILY VIOLENCE  WORKING

The mission of the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Family Violence
Working Group is to provide a more prominent OJP focus on violent crime within the family
through improved intra-agency and interagency information exchange, coordinated planning, and
collaboration on projects. This mission is guided by legislation authorizing the work of the OJP
bureaus and offices and by legislation concerning family violence.

The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 has provided additional impetus to the spouse and
partner abuse emphasis of the Family Violence Working Group, and the Act also includes a new
program addressing rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement. The Act is directed
toward a variety of criminal justice problems.  "We still hear of police who refuse to take a report
from a rape victim or who refuse to arrest an abusive husband.  We still hear of prosecutors who
dismiss cases and judges who do not put men who attack women behind bars.  We still hear of a
shocking tolerance in our society of violence among individuals who are acquainted."  This
description of the problem, by the OJP Assistant Attorney General Laurie Robinson at a March
1995, Washington, D.C. Workshop on Violence Against Women, was followed by a recommended
direction: "We must do more to educate society about violence, particularly family violence.  We
must encourage communities to adopt coordinated, comprehensive approaches to preventing and
intervening in these crimes and assisting crime victims.  We must discover how to handle
perpetrators and how to prevent violence from reoccurring."

The Violence Against Women Act responds to the needs of millions of women who are the victims
of violence each year. It also responds to the need for fundamental changes in addressing violence
against women, and it responds to the special needs of women in minority and Indian communities
who are violently victimized.  It provides for a comprehensive approach to fighting all forms of
violence against women through a broad array of legal and practical reforms.  Under the Act a new
federal offense of interstate domestic violence is created, and the first conviction has already been
handed down. The defendant in the case faces up to 20 years in prison for severely beating his wife,
locking her in his trunk, and driving across state lines from West Virginia to Kentucky.  

To implement the Act the Department of Justice established a Violence Against Women Office
under the Associate Attorney General and a Violence Against Women Grants Office in the Office
of Justice Programs.  Bonnie Campbell is the Director of the Violence Against Women Office which
is dedicated to carrying out the new vision of the Violence Against Women Act by encouraging
coordination and cooperation among the various justice and service agencies at all levels of
government.  The Office is also working to transform public attitudes toward these crimes and dispel
the notion that these acts of violence against women are private disputes not fit for public scrutiny
or legal judgement. 

Chapter 2 under Subtitle A of the VAW Act is a major new effort to provide support to the States
and Indian tribal governments for criminal justice responses and victim assistance efforts. It is being
implemented by the Violence Against Women Grants Office which is administered by Kathy
Schwartz. Details of the program are presented under the section on the Violence Against Women
Grants Office. These VAW grants are intended to lay the foundation for on-going interventions that
promote and increase an effective criminal justice system response to violence against women, and
also to increase the range of services for the victims of such violence.  

The OJP Working Group on Family Violence was established by the Assistant Attorney General in
November 1993 and is currently comprised of representatives from the six OJP bureaus and offices: 
the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
(OJJDP), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), the Bureau
of Justice Statistics (BJS); and the Violence Against Women Grants Office (VAW). The Working
Group on Family Violence is chaired jointly by Bernie Auchter of the National Institute of Justice
and Kathy Schwartz of the Violence Against Women Grants Office.  Other members of the Working
Group include Cheri Crawford, Sam McQuade, Lois Mock, and Richard Titus from the NIJ; Marti
Speights, Jackie McCann Clelland, Olga Trujillo and Ashley Oliver from OVC; Sharie Cantelon
from OJJDP; Ronet Bachman and Michael Rand from BJS; Jennifer Knobe, Jill Kateman, and
Alison Perkins from BJA; Catherine Pierce and Jacque Agtuca from VAW; and Mai Fernandez,
Special Assistant to the Deputy Assistant Attorney General.

The goals of the working group are to:

      Coordinate and collaborate in planning, funding, and knowledge dissemination activities
       within OJP and, sharing information with other Federal agencies having responsibilities in
       this area;

      Identify and assess the areas that need to be developed through research, evaluation,
       training, technical assistance, data collection, demonstration programs, and program funding
       through the bureaus and offices of OJP;

      Coordinate, as appropriate, with pertinent components in the Department of Justice
       including, especially the Violence Against Women Office, the Criminal Division, the Office
       of Policy Development, and the Executive Office of U.S. Attorneys.

      Develop an annual report to the Assistant Attorney General on OJP family violence
       programs and projects within the bureaus and offices.  The report provides the status of
       these efforts, and contains general information on the dimensions of family violence, OJP
       publications, and a listing of contacts;

      Review and comment on proposed legislation regarding family violence issues and provide         recommendations on family violence to the Assistant Attorney General as requested;

      Continue meeting monthly to exchange information and keep all bureaus and offices
       informed of significant events, publications, conferences and meetings that focus on family
       violence; and 

      Continue a policy of encouraging involvement in the Working Group by having meetings
       that are open to all interested individuals and by inviting members and other staff to
              meetings with visiting practitioners, researchers and other family violence experts.                      II.  PROBLEM STATEMENT

Not many decades ago, what happened within the home was considered to be a private, family
matter and was excluded from scrutiny by the public.  During the last two decades, there has been
an increase in awareness of the seriousness of child abuse and neglect, spouse/partner abuse, and
elder abuse not only as serious societal problems but as crimes.  As a result, there has been an
increase in the use of the criminal process in addressing family and domestic violence.  National
incidence and research studies reveal the dramatic increase in family violence and the increasing
tendency to respond to the problem not only as crime within the family but also as the prevention
of crime outside the family.  

The Department of Justice began to address the family violence problem more directly eleven years
ago with the report of the Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence.  The Task Force
stated: "A great proportion of those who assault both strangers and loved ones were raised
themselves in violent households.  This is learned behavior.  To tolerate family violence is to allow
the seeds of violence to be sown into the next generation."  A justice focus on family violence is
therefore one that concerns violence prevention as well as a just outcome in individual cases.

The nature and extent of violence within the family is tragic and alarming.  It suggests a continued
burden and challenge to our society.

      In 1994 approximately 1,271 children died as a result of child abuse and neglect; an
       estimated 3,140,000 children were reported for maltreatment; and, of those reported, an
       estimated 1,036,000 children were confirmed as victims of maltreatment by child
       protective services (National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, April 1995).

      In 1994 approximately 11 percent of substantiated child maltreatment cases              (approximately 113,960) involved sexual abuse (National Committee to Prevent         Child Abuse, April 1995).

      About 15% of all victims of child maltreatment in 36 reporting states were              removed from their homes in 1993. (Child Maltreatment 1993, National Center on       Child Abuse and Neglect).

      Early childhood abuse and neglect place victims at an increased risk for delinquency,
       adult criminality, and violent criminal behavior.  Being abused or neglected as a child
       increases the risk of arrest as a juvenile by 53 percent, as an adult by 38 percent, and for
       a violent crime by 38 percent. (The Cycle of Violence, Cathy Spatz Widom, NIJ, 1992).

      Co      mpared to victims of childhood physical abuse and neglect, victims of childhood       sexual abuse are at greater risk of being arrested for one type of sex crime:             prostitution. (Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse - Later Criminal Consequences, Cathy Spatz Widom, NIJ, 1995).

      In 43 percent of serious child abuse or neglect cases, at least one parent has a documented
       substance abuse problem.  Alcohol, cocaine, and heroin were the most frequently abused
       drugs (Murphy, Jellinek, Quinn, Smith, Poitrast, and Goshko, Child Abuse and Neglect,
       V 15 N 3, 1991).

      The more a child is physically punished, the greater the probability that he or she                                                                                     will assault a spouse or someone outside his/her family (Murray Straus, "Discipline and
                                                                                                                                                                               Deviance: Physical Punishment of Children and Violence and Other Crime in Adulthood,"
                                                                                                                                                                               Social Problems, 38 (2) 1991).

      75 percent of men against whom restrainin  g orders are issued have prior criminal        records, and nearly half have histories of committing violent crime (Isaac, Cochran,                                                                                      Brown, and Adams, "Men Who Batter," Archives of Family Medicine, January 1994).

      Of      fenders committed over a half million violent cri  mes against a spouse or ex-                                                                                          spouse.  Of these 9% were rapes or sexual assaults, 6% were robberies, 14%                aggravated assaults, and 71% were simple assaults. ("Criminal Victimization 1993," Lisa Bastian, BJS, May 1995). 

      Females were victimized by relatives at 4 times the rate of males (8 violennt
       victimizations per 1,000 females versus 2 per 1,000 males). (Criminal Victimization
       1993," Lisa Bastian, BJS, May 1995).  

      An      analysis of assaults by family members and intimate acquaintances found that         firearm assaults are over twelve times more likely to end in death than assaults                                                                                          
                                                                                               involving other weapons (Arthur Kellerman, The American Medical Association National
                                                                                               Conference on Family Violence, March 10, 1994).

      About 5 percent of the nation's elderly may be victims of moderate to severe abuse                                                                                      (Elder Abuse: A Decade of Shame and Inaction, Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term
                                                                                                                                                                               Care of the Select Committee on Aging of the U.S. House of Representatives, May 1990). 
                                                                                                                                                                               The National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse estimates that nearly 1.57 million
                                                                                                                                                                               older people became victims of domestic elder abuse during 1991.

      While one out of three child abuse cases is reported, only one out of every eight cases of
       elder abuse is reported (based on a survey of States by the Subcommittee on Health and
       Long-Term Care).

      Ba     sed on data from the redesigned National Crime   Victimization Survey (NCVS)       for 1992-93, we know that out of the nearly 5 m  illion violent victimizations of           women which occurred annuall  y, 29% were perpetrated by intimates including           husbands and exhusbands and boyfriends and exboyfriends. Over three-quarters of violent incidents against women were perpetrated by offenders known to the victim ("Violence Against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey," Ronet         Bachman and Linda Saltzman, BJS, August 1995). 

      Rates of intimate perpetrated violence from the NCVS were more than six times higher
       for women than for men. Incidents of homicide from the Uniform Crime Report reveal
       similar victim/offender relationship patterns. Female victims of homicide in 1992 were
       significantly more likely to be killed by an intimate as male victims of homicide. For
       example, more than 1,400 women were killed by husbands and boyfriends in 1992
       while just more than 630 men were killed by wives and girlfriends ("Violence Against
       Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey," Ronet Bachman and Linda Saltzman,
       BJS, August 1995). 

      Also based on data from the NCVS, we know that women who experienced violence at
       the hands of an intimate were more likely to be injured as the result of their
       victimization compared to women who were victimized by a stranger ("Violence Against
       Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey," Ronet Bachman and Linda Saltzman,
       BJS, August 1995). 

      A national survey of criminal justice practitioners reveals that virtually all police chiefs
       and sheriffs indicated that domestic violence contributed to workload problems. Over
       91% of the responding prosecutors and 82% of public defenders cited domestic violence
       and child abuse cases as contributors to workload problems in their offices. Of the judges
       responding to the survey, 79% indicated child abuse cases contributed to workload
       problems and 85% indicated domestic violence cases contributed to workload problems.
       Finally, two-thirds of jail administrators report domestic violence as a moderate or major
       contributor to their jail crowding problems. (National Institute of Justice, National
       Assessment Program: 1994 Survey Results, June 1995). 

Given the important role of the criminal and civil justice systems, the limited resources available
to address family violence, and the goals relative to family violence that are embodied in the Crime
Act, particularly the Violence Against Women Act, it is important that DOJ and OJP closely
examine current efforts, prioritize the use of available funds and resources, and coordinate efforts
within OJP, DOJ, and other responsible Federal agencies.  The Department of Justice has begun to
respond with an expanded and coordinated focus on the many justice related needs surrounding this
grave national problem of violence within families.  The following sections detail the ways in which
the OJP bureaus and offices are addressing the problem.



I. Legislative Mandate

The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) administers the Edward Byrne State and Local Assistance
Program, which was established by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 and re-authorized by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The Byrne program consists of a Discretionary and a Formula Grant
Program.  The Discretionary Program is designed to determine what is most effective in criminal
justice and drug control, to disseminate that information to State and local agencies, and to assist
in the replication of effective programs and practices.  The Formula Grant Program provides States
with funds that are distributed to State and local criminal justice agencies to implement each State's
drug control and violent crime strategy.  These funds can be used to replicate effective
demonstration proposals.  Family violence is one of twenty-two purpose areas in the State and local
assistance program.

II. Background and History

Following the Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence in 1984, which advocated criminal
intervention and prosecution in appropriate cases, BJA funded a series of local demonstration
programs between 1986 and 1990, primarily in prosecutors' offices, showing that the criminal justice
system can successfully prosecute, convict, and sentence abusers.  These programs have also
determined that cooperation between criminal justice systems and social services systems is
desirable, if, early on, an approach is fostered and maintained by a coordinating body comprised of
the leaders of the participating agencies. 

These demonstration programs, with accompanying evaluation efforts, involved eleven spouse abuse
intervention projects and seven child abuse prosecution efforts, for a total investment of over $3.5
million.  They were designed to develop and document improved justice system practices for
handling family violence cases.  The Family Violence Program resulted in a comprehensive
document entitled "Family Violence: Intervention for the Justice Systems."  This publication is a
current and valuable source of information for initiating or enhancing criminal justice intervention
and treatment efforts in a jurisdiction.

III. Current Programs

Discretionary Grant Program

The discretionary grant program includes six projects:

Violence Against Women--Demonstration Sites.  Currently funding three pilot projects, this effort
is an attempt to identify mechanisms and procedures which affect the jurisdiction-wide coordination
of criminal justice agencies, victim services, social services, medical services and others, as
appropriate, to ensure that a jurisdiction's issues and problems concerning violence against women
are handled effectively.  There is a city-wide program in Baltimore, Maryland; a county-wide
program in Santa Clara, California; and a statewide program through the Administrative Office of
the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of Virginia.  These three pilot programs provide BJA with
a basis for determining a prototype to enhance and coordinate jurisdiction-wide responses to issues
concerning violence against women.

Violence Against Women--Training and Technical Assistance.  The American Prosecutors'
Research Institute, in cooperation with the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
(sub-contractors) acts as a resource center for the three demonstration sites that address coordinating
councils for violence against women.  Both professional organizations provide technical assistance
to support implementation of critical elements that outline the tasks and responsibilities of the
coordinating councils in the demonstration sites.  The scope of the technical assistance includes
practitioners in the criminal and civil courts as well as those working in related areas such as social
services, mental health, battered women's shelters, victim advocacy, and batterer and substance
abuse treatment. 

Domestic Abuse Response Team (DART). Operated through the Philadelphia District Attorney's
Office, The Domestic Violence Response Team (DART) provides a centralized, coordinated, multi-disciplinary response to domestic violence.  It emphasizes victim safety and prevents further and
more serious violence or injury to children.  The project's goals include contacting victims of
domestic violence within 24 hours of arrest; offering multi-service coordinated intervention;
prosecuting abusers promptly; seeking appropriate sentences and/or treatment for abusers; and
implementing intensive case management. The program utilizes vertical prosecution, through which
the same prosecutor handles all aspects of a case.

Interagency Strategies on Domestic Violence and Stalking.  This program explores the
relationship between drugs (including alcohol) and domestic violence.  The purpose of this program
by the American Prosecutors' Research Institute is to provide practical, substantive responses to
documented needs of prosecutors in effectively handling domestic violence and stalking cases.  The
program is divided into two components: the first addresses the issue of substance abuse and other
factors in the context of domestic violence, and the second addresses the issue of stalking as it
relates to domestic violence.

A Regional Seminar Series for States on Implementing Anti-Stalking Codes.  The purpose of
this effort by the National Criminal Justice Association is to assist public policy makers and criminal
justice officials in making informed judgements about the effectiveness of stalking laws.  This
project includes model code provisions and commentary that arose in drafting the code, contains a
profile of the existing State stalking statutes, addresses bail and sentencing decisions, discusses code
implementation strategies, and offers recommendations for stalking-related research.

Intervening in Family and Domestic Violence: A Resource Manual for Community
Corrections Professionals.  This project enhances the ability of community corrections
professionals to intervene effectively with perpetrators of family and domestic violence by preparing
a resource manual on family and domestic violence, providing workshops, and conducting two pilot
programs.  The project is being conducted and dissemination plans are being developed by the
American Probation and Parole Association.  The manual will be available in July 1995. 

Formula Grant Program

BJA provides funds for many family violence programs throughout State and local jurisdictions. 
Funding is determined by the Statewide strategy submitted annually to BJA.  These programs are
diverse, including prevention, intervention, treatment, child abuse, elder abuse, spousal abuse,
response teams, prosecution, and multi-agency cooperative efforts.   BJA's publication, Domestic
and Family Violence: Highlighted Programs from the State Annual Reports, outlines many of
the current formula grant funded family violence programs.  Publications produced from BJA's
Innovative Programs working meetings are another valuable resource.  The following programs are
selected examples of the variety of projects supported under the formula grant program:


Parenting as Prevention Program. Regional training brings together parents, educators,
community members, and law enforcement officers.  These individuals return to their communities
to offer training in parenting skills.  The Colorado Federation of Parents offers technical assistance
follow-up, including initiation of parenting groups, assistance with training and resources, and
working with the media.  An annual television broadcast of a six session Active Parenting Program
is shown each year on public service television.


Domestic and Family Violence. The objectives of the program are to provide the police department
with specific training to respond to domestic violence calls; to immediately link up victims and
family members to services; to increase the amount of interagency cooperation; and to reduce the
number of domestic violence incidents through this consistent and systematic response.

Domestic and Family Violence Response Team. The prosecutor team is trained to expedite
investigation and prosecution of domestic violence perpetrators and to provide counseling services
to domestic violence victims and family members.  Coordination with other criminal justice
agencies has been increased to develop staff training opportunities and services to domestic violence

Domestic Violence Prosecution Program. The objectives of the program are to establish a
domestic violence prosecution unit and increase the number of domestic violence cases prosecuted
using a vertical prosecution model; to establish a career criminal classification system to identify
repeat offenders; and to provide training and networking opportunities for the domestic violence
prosecution unit.


Massachusetts Attorney General's Elderly Protection Project. The Project provides multi-disciplinary training designed to promote collaboration between police officers and local elder
protective service workers, which enhances officers' skills in reducing, reporting, and responding
to instances of abuse, neglect, and financial exploitation of older citizens.  Training explores the
following topics:  the demographics of an increasing elder population and its implications for police
services; myths and facts about aging; effective communication techniques, including background
on the concerns, fears, and vulnerabilities of the elderly; enhanced investigation through detailed
report writing and photographs; financial exploitation in its various forms; the elder abuse reporting
law and coordination with the protective services system; understanding domestic violence and its
applicability to the elderly; mental health issues; police response to missing persons with
Alzheimer's Disease; and case studies in elder abuse, neglect, and financial exploitation.  This is the
only comprehensive, statewide law enforcement training program concerning elder issues in


San Felipe Domestic Violence Program. The program components include early intervention,
public service campaigns to increase the reporting of domestic violence, and projects which provide
direct treatment to victims and perpetrators.  The funded projects include two Indian Pueblos.  The
San Felipe program attempts to increase the reporting of domestic violence incidents, develops case
studies, establishes a coordinated referral system between tribal court and community social
services, and decreases the incidence of abuse.  The program establishes, develops, and maintains
over 161 client contacts.  These include in-home visits, phone contacts, coordination with other
programs, and referrals.  Once a contact is made, a risk scale is utilized to measure the level of
abuse.  The scale is administered by a family and domestic violence counselor to determine the at-risk behaviors of both victim and perpetrator.


Child Abuse Response Team (CART). The CART Program focuses on family violence,
particularly child abuse, by improving investigations of child abuse cases, strengthening the prospect
of successful prosecution of cases brought to trial, and creating a working model of operations that
can be duplicated by other jurisdictions.  The CART serves as a model for use in other departments,
with a cross-training component with other agencies.

Child Victim Assistance Project. The program provides direct assistance to child victims and their
families with the help of trained volunteers coordinated by the District Attorney's Office and the
Attorney General's Office.  Child victims are given one-on-one attention by the State during the
criminal prosecution process.  The program involves cooperation from the District Attorney's Office
and volunteer coordinators.  A project director represents the Attorney General's Office in the


Combatting Violent Crimes. The purpose of this project is to reduce crimes in domestic situations. 
The Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, consisting of six officers and a sergeant, reviews all police
reports of domestic violence and conducts investigations to increase the number of domestic
violence prosecutions.  The unit contacts each victim and helps him or her obtain shelter services,
counseling, and legal assistance.  Investigated cases are referred to the Multnomah County District
Attorney's special prosecution unit.  Convicted offenders are offered the opportunity to enter
Multnomah County's deferred sentencing program which includes intensive supervision and
treatment.  Services include emergency housing, transportation, intensive intervention such as drug
and alcohol treatment, legal advocacy, access to gang reduction programs, support groups, and


Enhanced Child Abuse Prosecution Project (ECAP).  Allegheny County's Enhanced Child Abuse
Prosecution Project is a collaborative effort among the District Attorney's Office and significant
local agencies to enhance the prosecution of child abuse cases and reduce the effects of
victimization.  Three assistant district attorneys in the Crime Persons Unit prosecute only child
abuse cases.  As a result, assistant district attorneys are available to investigators to conduct joint
interviews of child abuse victims, regularly attend preliminary hearings, consult with victims and
their families, and consult with agencies providing services to the victim.

Armstrong County Batterer Intervention Group. ARC Manor (a drug and alcohol center) and
HAVIN (a domestic violence shelter) form the Batterer Intervention Group.  The group, which
meets weekly, is facilitated by a treatment specialist.  The overall goal of the intervention group is
to reduce the incidence of physical, mental, and emotional violence.  Clients are referred through
HAVIN or the legal system.  The project uses the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic
Violence program standards for batterer intervention.  Other activities include educating the criminal
justice system about the availability of and necessity for such intervention, addressing the attitudes
of a rural population regarding battering, and ensuring the victim's safety during the intervention

Philadelphia Childsaf. The goal of the program is to successfully prosecute the abuser while
providing support to the child victim.  Program components include a multi-disciplinary approach
in which a prosecutor from the Child Abuse Unit and a social worker from the Support Center for
Child Advocates work together to identify and follow through on cases; vertical prosecution which
is especially useful for serious child abuse cases because of the victim's heightened need for
consistency; and pre- and post-conviction services which allow the social worker on the CHILDSAF
team to make referrals to outside agencies, provide limited counseling, and follow-up after

Prevention of Violence and Victimization Among Teens. Turning Point's Family/Dating Violence
Prevention program serves school districts in Lehigh and Northampton Counties.  The goal of the
program is to identify and prevent abusive dating relationships and to end the cycle of violence
through education.  Turning Point provides two programs, one for middle school students focusing
on family violence and one for high school students focusing on dating violence.  Each program is
one hour in length for two sessions.  Through films and discussion, students learn the definitions
of abuse and domestic violence and identify the three types of domestic abuse and examples of each. 
Gender stereotypes are examined and linked to domestic abuse.


Criminal Sexual Assault Investigator. The overall goal of the Child Sexual Abuse Special
Investigator is to enhance investigation, and thereby prosecution, of child sexual abuse cases.  The
Special Investigator receives reports of child sexual abuse through an incident report, referral letter
from the Department of Social Services, or schools or hospitals.  The investigator, who is assigned
solely to sexual abuse cases, then initiates an investigation that includes interviews, medical
examinations, and witness statements.  When appropriate, charges are filed.  If the Department of
Social Services is involved, the Special Investigator testifies at the DSS Family Court hearing.  In
the interim between preliminary hearing and general sessions, the investigator maintains contact
with the child victim and addresses any needs of the victim.  He or she prepares the child for court
during this time.  The Special Investigator is able to provide comprehensive services because his or
her time is not divided among a larger caseload.


Special Prosecution Unit on Domestic Violence. A vertical prosecution unit with specially trained
attorneys handles all felony domestic violence cases.  The unit works closely with the Family
Violence Police Unit, Victim Witness advocates, and community and court agencies which serve
the victims of domestic violence and their batterers.  A coordinated, continuous relationship exists
between the Victim Intervention Program and the Special Prosecution Unit on Domestic Violence. 
Shelter advocates are notified of court proceedings involving victims receiving shelter services.  The
Victim Advocates in the Special Prosecution Unit on Domestic Violence also work closely with the
Peace Program and other batterers' programs.


Child Abuse Protection Program. The Child Abuse Prosecution Unit operated out of the Utah
Attorney General's Office responds to the problems of physical and sexual child abuse. The Child
Abuse Unit supports a multi-disciplinary approach to child abuse cases, encouraging the Division
of Family Services, law enforcement, and prosecutors to work together and share information.  The
Child Abuse Unit also provides training statewide and has assumed a leadership role in proposing
and lobbying for legislative changes to child abuse laws.  Unit personnel provide assistance to
prosecutors and investigators who need technical assistance, advice, and consultation.  The unit also
assumes the prosecution and/or investigation function when requested by the County Attorney. 
Other responsibilities include reviewing and responding to complaints referred to the Attorney
General's Office regarding inadequate investigative or prosecutorial efforts in child abuse cases, and
maintaining up to date training on all developments in the area of child abuse investigation and
prosecution, with the goal of being a resource for others involved in the prosecution of these cases. 


Domestic Violence Legal Advocacy Program. The goal of the Domestic Violence Legal Advocacy
program is to decrease the incidence of domestic violence in the State of Washington by facilitating
victims' access to and use of currently available legal sanctions and social services.  The program's
objectives are to increase the domestic violence victims' ability to protect themselves and their
children through legal sanctions and to obtain needed services in order to end the violence in their
lives.  The program assists victims in filing criminal justice protection orders and anti-harassment
orders; processing civil remedies to domestic violence such as divorce and separation filings, child
custody, visitation orders, or parenting plans; and accessing needed financial aid and social services.


West Virginia Family Violence Project. This project provides seven eight-hour training sessions
in law enforcement response to family violence.  Pre-trained volunteer trainers use updated
curriculum and manuals.  This project also reprints and distributes updated training manuals to
approximately 250 law enforcement officers throughout the State.  One project goal is to make
available to law enforcement professionals and policy makers training and materials dealing with
the law enforcement response to domestic violence.  This is accomplished by informing members
of the Family Protection Training Teams of this project; organizing volunteer training teams willing
to present the training session; and arranging for trainers, curriculum, and sites needed to comply
with the Law Enforcement Training directives of the Governor's Committee on Crime, Delinquency,
and Correction.  The second goal is to make available to law enforcement professionals and policy
makers information dealing with legislative changes mandated during the 1994 legislative session. 
The training manual incorporates the rules and regulations for the law enforcement response to
domestic violence currently being developed by the Advisory Committee of the Governor's
Committee on Crime, Delinquency, and Correction, and is being updated.  The third goal is to
produce and distribute at least 250 revised manuals on family violence to law enforcement
professionals by working with Prison Industries to incorporate new materials into the existing
manuals and to reprint them; providing manuals free of charge to approximately 250 training
participants; and including a copy of the revised manual in curriculum repositories at the Police
training facilities and the Criminal Justice Department at Marshall University.

IV. Anticipated Plans

In June 1995, the National Criminal Justice Association's final report on implementing anti-stalking
codes will be available.  The report will apply the model code and provide commentary and
recommendations to help the criminal justice community explore legislative and programmatic
approaches to addressing the issue of stalking.

In July 1995, The Bureau of Justice Assistance will have available a publication that discusses the
policy and operational aspects of the Philadelphia District Attorneys Office's "Domestic Abuse
Response Team."  This publication will be provided to all local prosecutors' offices interested in
replicating the D.A.R.T. approach to domestic violence intervention and treatment.  Federal funding
to support the replication of this program could be awarded by BJA formula grant funds provided
that the State has included domestic violence in the current funding strategies.  

Other future publications relating, in part, to family violence are: "State and Local Programs:
Treatment, Rehabilitation, and Education," "State and Local Programs: Understanding and
Combatting Violence," and "State and Local Programs: Preventing Violence and Drug Abuse."  In
addition, a State and Local Working Meeting on Family Violence is currently under consideration.



I.  Legislative Mandate

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) collects, analyzes, publishes, and disseminates statistical
information on crime including criminal victimization, criminal offenders, and the operations of
justice systems at both all levels of government and internationally. These objective data and
analyses are used by key policy makers at the Federal, State, and local levels in their efforts to
combat drugs and crime.  BJS also provides technical and financial support to State statistical and
operating agencies responsible for the collection and analysis of State criminal justice data and
statistics. Additionally, BJS administers a major program, funded by the Bureau of Justice
Assistance, to assist State and local governments in improving their criminal history records and
information systems.  Within several of these domains, the etiology of family violence is given
particular attention. 

II.  History and Current Programs

The National Crime Victimization Survey

The primary source of information sponsored by BJS on family violence comes from the National
Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).  This survey, which began in 1973, collects data on personal
and household victimizations through an ongoing national survey of residential addresses. 
Specifically, the survey provides measures for the following types of crimes including attempts:
rape, sexual assault, robbery, assault, larceny, burglary, and motor vehicle theft.  Detailed
information about each victimization incident and its consequences is recorded as well as the
characteristics of the offender insofar as the victim can report them.  The current sample consists
of approximately 50,000 housing units and 101,000 persons age 12 or older.  Individuals are
interviewed every 6 months for a period of 3 years; the average response rate is over 95 percent. 

Estimating violence against women that occurs "behind closed doors" at the hands of an intimate
remains a difficult task for the NCVS. Many factors inhibit women from reporting their
victimizations to researchers, including the private nature of the event, the perceived stigma
associated with one's victimization, the belief that no purpose will be served in reporting it, as well
as fear of retaliation from the offender.  After an extensive 10-year redesign project, the NCVS now
utilizes a new survey instrument which more directly queries respondents about rape and other acts
of violence perpetrated by intimates. Included in the screener instrument, after the general questions
concerning acts of violence or theft, is an item that asks the following: 

      Other than any incidents already mentioned, has anyone attacked or               
     threatened you in any of these ways:
       (a)    With any weapon, for instance, a gun or a 
          knife -
       (b)    With anything like a baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, or stick -
       (c)    By something thrown, such as a rock or bottle -                        
       (d)    Any grabbing, punching or choking -
       (e)    Any face to face threats - 
       (f)    Any attack or threat or use of force by anyone at all? 
     Please mention it even if you are not certain it was a crime.
After this question is asked, respondents are further queried about any attacks or threats of attack
which have been committed by family members. The next question asks:
      People often don't think of incidents committed by someone they know. (Other than
     any incidents already mentioned,) did you have something stolen from you OR were
     you attacked or threatened by 
       (a)    Someone at work or school, 
       (b)    A neighbor or friend, 
       (c)    A relative or family member, 
       (d)    Any other person you've met or known? 
The redesigned NCVS survey also queries respondents much more directly about their experiences
with unwanted sexual contact, including those with intimates such as husbands/boyfriends or other
family members. To ascertain information on rape experienced by both males and females,
respondents are now asked the question:
      Incidents involving forced or unwanted sexual acts are often difficult to talk about.
     (Other than any incidents already mentioned), have you been forced or coerced to
     engage in unwanted sexual activity by 
        (a)   Someone you didn't know before, 
        (b)   A casual acquaintance, or 
        (c)   Someone you know well? 
If a respondent replies yes, an incident report is completed. At this time, the interviewer is asked to
clarify exactly what type of sexual activity occurred by asking the respondent: "Do you mean forced
or coerced sexual intercourse?" Again, if the answer is affirmative, the incident is coded as a rape.
If there is some confusion by what "sexual intercourse" implies, interviewers are provided with a
very explicit definition of rape adopted by the NCVS. This definition can be used for reference or
can be read to respondents at any time during the interview. It states: 
      Rape is forced sexual intercourse and includes both psychological coercion as well
     as physical force. Forced sexual intercourse means vaginal, anal, or oral penetration
     by the offender(s). This category also includes incidents where the penetration is
     from a foreign object such as a bottle. 
Depending on the respondent's reply, an incident can be categorized into the following very specific
types of sexual victimization: Completed Rape, Attempted Rape, Verbal Threat of Rape, Attempted
Verbal Threat of Rape, Completed Sexual Attack (Grabbing, Fondling, etc.), Verbal Threat of
Sexual Attack, and Unwanted Sexual Contact. 

For all acts of violence measured by the NCVS, if a respondent revealed that s/he had been attacked
or otherwise victimized by someone known to him/her, the relationship of the victim to the offender
can be categorized within one of the following categories: known by sight only, a casual
acquaintance, spouse at time of incident, ex-spouse at time of incident, parent or step-parent, own
child or step-child, brother/sister, other relative, boy/girlfriend or ex-boy/girlfriend, friend or ex-friend, roommate or boarder, schoolmate, neighbor, someone at work, or other non-relative.

Estimates of violence against women from the redesigned NCVS instrument reveal that out of the
nearly 5 million violent victimizations against women which occur annually, 29% were perpetrated
by intimates including husbands and exhusbands, and boyfriends and exboyfriends. Over three-quarters of all violent incidents against women were perpetrated by offenders known to the victim. 

Rates of intimate perpetrated violence from the redesigned NCVS were found to be over 6 times
higher for women than for men. Intimate perpetrated violence affected women of all races and
ethnic backgrounds to about the same extent. 

The redesigned NCVS screening instrument has been but one step in the evolution of our thinking
about issues relating to rape and family violence. It is important to remember, however, that
research, including the NCVS, cannot be divorced from the social context in which it is conducted.
Existing attitudes and stereotypes pertaining to family violence undoubtedly affect the extent to
which all surveys, including the NCVS, can accurately quantify the problem.

The NEISS Program

BJS has also contracted the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to utilize the CPSC's
ongoing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to obtain injury data related to
intentional injuries, especially injuries related to violence or abuse within households. The CPSC
began collecting data for the BJS Intentional Injury Study at 31 hospitals throughout the nation on
October 1, 1993. Under the NEISS program, specially trained coders at each hospital examine the
record of every patient treated in the hospital's emergency room for information about the cause of
any injury for which the patient is being treated. For the Intentional Injury Study, the coders use
information present on the record to code whether or not the injury was caused intentionally, or
whether information on the record is consistent with an intentional injury. To date, the 31 hospitals
in the sample have obtained information on 18,666 patients with injuries treated. Of these, 1,853
(10 percent) were coded as "intentional" injuries, and 222 (1 percent) were coded as possible
intentional injuries.

Survey of Prison and Jail Inmates

In addition to ascertaining characteristics of victims (e.g. relationship to offender, age, etc.), new
questions have been added to the BJS sponsored Survey of Prison and Jail Inmates which measure
the extent to which inmates experienced either physical or sexual abuse as children. Specifically,
the first question solicits information by asking inmates, "Have you ever been physically or sexually
abused?"  Subsequent questions determine the age at which this (these) victimization(s) occurred
(before age 18 or older), the age of the abuser (adult, minor), and the relationship of the abuser
(parent or guardian, spouse, relative, boy/girlfriend, friend or acquaintance).  A recent BJS
publication, Women in Prison, found that 43 percent of women inmates and 12 percent of male
inmates had been either physically or sexually abused.  The majority of these victimizations had
occurred while the inmate was under the age of 18.

III.  Anticipated Plans

Using data for 1992 and 1993 from the redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey, BJS
released a Special Report entitled, "Violence Against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned
Survey" in June of 1995. In addition, a forthcoming publication called, Violence Against Women:
An Examination of Vulnerabilities, will examine violence against women and how the contextual
characteristics of this violence compares to violence against men. This report will also examine the
consequences of violence against women including injuries sustained, medical costs, and police
intervention to this violence by different victim and offender relationships.


I.  Legislative Mandate

The National Institute of Justice is the research and development agency of the United States
Department of Justice.  NIJ was established to prevent and reduce crime and to improve the criminal
justice system.  Specific mandates established by Congress in the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe
Streets Act of 1968, as amended, and the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 direct the National Institute
of Justice to:

  Sponsor special projects and research and development programs that will improve            and strengthen the criminal justice system and reduce or prevent crime;

  Conduct national demonstration projects that employ innovative or promising                                                                                                 approaches for improving criminal justice;
  Develop new technologies to fight crime and improve criminal justice;

  Evaluate the effectiveness of criminal justice programs and identify programs that                                                                                          promise to be successful if continued or repeated;

  Recommend actions that can be taken by Federal, State, and local governments as             well as private organizations to improve criminal justice;

  Carry out research on criminal behavior; and

  Develop new methods to prevent and reduce crime and delinquency.
II.  Background and History 

The National Institute of Justice has conducted research on child abuse and spouse assault for many
years.  In recent years, family violence research and evaluation addressing primarily the concerns
of the justice system has been developed into a major program area at NIJ.  Thus, the mandates cited
above concern both serious crime committed by strangers as well as violence within the family and
among other intimates.                         

The program includes the sponsorship of applied and basic research.  The results of these projects
have informed criminal justice practitioners across the nation through a variety of useful
publications.  The more recent publications are cited under the publications section of this report. 

Experimental research on spouse assault has addressed primarily the police response to the problem. 
An initial experiment in Minneapolis found positive effects of arrest in decreasing repeat offenses,
while several replications in other cities produced mixed results.  One interpretation of these data
suggests that being employed is a key factor in determining the positive effects of arrest for spouse
assault.  More recent research on spouse and partner assault has gone beyond this initial focus on
the police response.

Past NIJ sponsored projects on child abuse have addressed a variety of topics including: the impact
of the juvenile and criminal court process on the child; police investigations of child abuse; the
impact of child abuse and neglect on later criminality; improvements in interviewing techniques
with children; trial considerations in the prosecution of child abuse; and an examination of the
penalties imposed for sexual abuse when the victim is a child compared to an adult.  In addition to
the publications resulting from these research projects, many informative presentations on the
project findings have been made at various professional meetings. 

Some recently concluding projects have addressed topics such as: the impacts of arrest on the social
control of violence among intimates; evaluations of the Family Violence Prevention and Services
Act and the Virginia Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program; and an examination of
how the nation's probation and parole agencies are responding to the increased demand for
supervision and management of sex offenders.  Data collected from these and other projects will
serve as a valuable source of information for upcoming publications.

III.  Current Program 

The current program for NIJ-sponsored research and evaluation has been solicited within six major
goal areas. The goal areas are: reduce violent crime, reduce drug- and alcohol-related crime, reduce
the consequences of crime, improve the effectiveness of crime prevention programs, improve law
enforcement and the criminal justice system, and develop new technology for law enforcement and
the criminal justice system. The family violence research program cuts across all of these goals and
currently includes more than twenty projects.  NIJ funding on family violence related research over
the past several years has averaged approximately $1.4 million annually. In the current fiscal year
the passage of the Violence Against Women Act has added new responsibilities to NIJ's program
in family violence and, more broadly, violence against women research. In addition, a portion of
several major NIJ contracts, such as the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, are responsive
to numerous requests for family violence information.  A Partnerships Against Violence Network
(PAVNET) provides an online search and retrieval system that currently has promising programs,
information sources and technical assistance, and funding sources from various federal agencies. 
Family violence programs are included in PAVNET.  

While a number of basic research projects are underway, the current program of research and
evaluation on family violence has largely an applied focus.  Many of these studies will be
concluding in the current calendar year with preliminary results presented in July 1995 at NIJ's
Research and Evaluation Conference sponsored with the Bureau of Justice Assistance and the Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.  A keynote speaker and a number of panels on
family violence research and evaluation will be highlighted at the conference. 

A current project addressing family violence interventions is being supported by NIJ, various HHS
agencies, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York.  This comprehensive effort involves a
multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the National Research Council of the National
Academy of Sciences.  The study committee is in the process of 1) documenting the impact of
family violence on public and private sector services in the United States, especially in the area of
spousal abuse, 2) synthesizing the relevant research literature and developing a conceptual
framework for clarifying and critiquing what is known about roles and relationships among risk and
protective factors associated with family violence, and 3) characterizing what is known about both
prevention efforts and selected interventions in dealing with family violence.  This project will
conclude early in 1997 and will suggest directions for the future.

Child Maltreatment

Current projects on childhood victimization are addressing a number of significant issues.  Recent
research has begun to document the relationship between child abuse and neglect and later violent
criminal behavior in a way that researchers, practitioners, and policy makers recognize and are
willing to accept.  While no single factor by itself is likely to account for the development of
violence, childhood victimization has been found to increase risk for violence significantly.
Research now underway will have accumulated approximately 22 years of information on arrests
for delinquency and adult criminality for a large sample of 1,575 individuals, approximately half
of whom were exposed to childhood victimization (physical and sexual abuse or neglect). The other
half are controls who have been matched on widely recognized risk co-factors.  The overall purpose
of the research is to gather complete current criminal histories on the 1,575 individuals who were
in the sample in the original NIJ study of childhood victimization and later violent offending. 
Among the goals: to document the prevalence of criminality and violence in this sample of
previously abused and/or neglected children and controls; to determine the extent to which
childhood victimization influences characteristics of offending, including chronicity, age of onset,
continuance of violent offending (from adolescence to young adulthood), and patterns of violent
offending; to determine the extent to which these individuals have arrests for child abuse and spouse
abuse; and to examine the extent to which there are race and sex-specific differences in the
relationship between childhood victimization and violent offending.

The National Survey of Adolescents being supported by NIJ assesses a nationally representative
household sample of 3000 adolescents and their parents, and an oversample of 1000 adolescents and
their parents living in households in central cities.  A random digit dialing methodology has been
used in obtaining the sample. The interview gathered information regarding lifetime exposure to
violent crime (including sexual assault, physical assault, witnessing violence at home, in school, and
in the neighborhood), specific emotional problems (including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and
Major Depression), substance abuse, and delinquent behaviors.  Analysis of the survey is currently
underway. The results should 
improve our understanding of factors associated with the development of serious behavioral
problems among adolescents, including substance abuse and delinquency.

A number of child maltreatment studies directed toward the needs of the justice system are also in
progress and nearing conclusion.  Since the national picture of justice system processing of child
abuse cases remains incomplete, a study supported jointly by NIJ and OJJDP was commissioned.
The research is tracking child abuse cases through child protective services, law enforcement,
prosecution, and the courts to case disposition.  This project also supported a case study of child
abuse prosecution in San Diego, a jurisdiction that aggressively prosecutes child physical abuse as
well as sexual abuse cases.  This case study was recently published as a Research in Brief.  
Another concluding effort is directed toward improving coordination of multiple judicial
proceedings involving child maltreatment cases. This study involved surveying courts, case studies
of several innovative jurisdictions, and a close examination of the legal issues involved in improving
court coordination.  Also, since children's hearsay statements play a vitally important role in
domestic violence and child abuse cases, a study of child hearsay is being conducted to demonstrate
effective ways of introducing children's testimony in these cases.

There has also been research documenting the serious, adverse effects of domestic violence upon
children.  According to this research, children of battered women display a range of somatic
complaints, psychological disorders, and a propensity to rely on violence as a primary conflict
resolution strategy.  Much of this research has focused on children who reside with their mothers
in emergency shelters after leaving home.  Of the few interventions that have aimed to ameliorate
the negative impact of domestic violence on children, most are located in emergency shelters.  The
limited work in this area is now being extended by an NIJ supported project to develop our
knowledge of the needs of the children of battered women, regardless of where they are living.  This
work focuses on the children of domestic abuse victims in Lawrence, Massachusetts.  The study is
gathering data on mothers who apply for temporary restraining orders and tracking the whereabouts
of the children over a 12-month period through telephone contacts with their mothers at six-month
intervals.  Projects that focus on issues that link child abuse and spouse/partner abuse will continue
to be of interest to NIJ in the future.

Two other child maltreatment related studies being conducted complete the current NIJ research
portfolio on child abuse issues.  One study in Washington, D.C., examined the use of parental drug
testing to aid judicial and social service system collaboration in preventing further maltreatment in
child abuse and neglect cases.  This project will provide information on the procedures, costs,
outcomes, and legal and policy issues in using urinalysis to monitor child maltreatment cases in
which a parent is involved with substance abuse.  The second study is an assessment of a BJA
supported program on the use of closed circuit television and videotaped testimony in child sexual
abuse trials.

Spouse and Partner Abuse

NIJ is supporting a variety of projects on spouse and partner assault through the family violence
research program and projects under the new violence against women initiative.  Projects to increase
our understanding of the dimensions and the antecedents of the problem include a national survey
on violence and a study of the antecedents of partner violence.  The project on violence and threats
in America will survey 8,000 women and 8,000 men over the age of 18.  The project is being
conducted with major support from the Centers for Disease Control.  A telephone survey will
provide national estimates on the prevalence and characteristics of different types of violence and
threats of violence, data on the characteristics of victims and offenders, an examination of the links
between threats and actual occurrences of violence against women, and an examination of women's
general fear of violence and their response to victimization.  The project will produce policy-oriented summaries with recommendations for improving legislation, policy, and practice.  A study
on the developmental antecedents of partner violence is using the most comprehensive prospective
longitudinal data base in the world for addressing such questions.  The data base includes
psychological, social, educational, criminological, family, and health data gathered at ages 3, 5, 7,
9, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21.  Through this project, the backgrounds of perpetrators of partner violence
will be studied, the issue of whether risk factors are particular to perpetrators of partner violence as
opposed to posing a risk for crime in general will be examined, and prevalence rates for perpetration
and victimization and other associated factors will be examined.

A study of the effectiveness of civil protection orders is being conducted in Denver, Wilmington,
and Washington, D.C.  The study builds on the pioneering studies of civil protection orders by
examining and documenting how protection orders are processed, what types of relief are
encompassed by the orders, what ancillary services are available to the victims, the extent of
coordination of those services by the court, and how orders are monitored and enforced.  The
findings from the study will assist judges, court administrators, prosecutors, law enforcement
officials, and providers of ancillary services to victims in improving practices and policies relating
to granting, monitoring, and enforcing civil protection orders.  Preliminary analysis suggests that
victims in the three locations regard the protection order process favorably.  The protection order
has helped reduce the violence and has brought more stability to their lives. 

A study on prosecution and domestic violence also is nearing conclusion.  It involves a national
survey of a representative cross-section of local prosecutors' offices on their efforts in prosecuting
these cases. The project includes three case studies in Seattle, Duluth, and San Francisco. Domestic
violence victims are being surveyed at each of the case study sites to solicit their views on the
domestic violence prosecution programs.  One of the key objectives of the project is to identify the
most significant determinants of domestic violence prosecution success. Preliminary results suggest
that approximately half of the respondents have specialized prosecution units and more than half use
formal protocols for screening domestic violence cases.  The final report will present information
on "no drop" and proarrest policies based on the survey, results of the victim surveys, the case
studies, and recommendations. 

Evaluative projects continue to be a major component of the overall family violence program.  A
study in Dade County, Florida, is continuing its examination of some basic assumptions regarding
domestic violence offenses in a major urban setting, including the role of substance abuse among
offenders.  A new domestic violence court established in Milwaukee is the subject of another
evaluation in which the effectiveness of the court, as well as its ability to address many of the
problems associated with traditional court processing, will be examined.  A field test being
conducted in New York City is attempting to measure the usefulness of victims services programs,
as well as batterer treatment programs, in a coordinated effort to reduce repeat violence. And a new
project in Quincy, Massachusetts, will also focus on reabuse by perpetrators and the perceptions of
victims and batterers of the judicial process and the interventions imposed.  

In a project jointly supported with the State Justice Institute, the coincidence of domestic violence
and custody disputes is being examined.  Through intensive case study in several sites, this project
seeks to identify effective court responses to these cases and the feasibility of using mediation.  In
an analysis of previously collected data, a separate project is examining the effectiveness of court-advised counseling during the process of separation and divorce.  Another secondary analysis project
is using data on arrests for domestic violence cases to examine issues relating to injury in spouse
assault. This effort is supported under a larger project of the Centers for Disease Control. In the
correctional field, a study to determine the response of probation and parole agencies to the
increased demand for supervision and management of sex offenders is nearing completion. The
study involves an analysis of legislation and a survey of state probation and parole agencies.

A new and important area of domestic violence research involves the corporate sector.  NIJ is
supporting a project on the corporate sector response to domestic violence, which includes a survey
of individuals working in employee assistance programs (EAPs), other corporate professionals, and
an in-depth case study of the Polaroid Corporation in Boston.  Polaroid has taken unusual steps in
response to the issue of domestic violence, both among its own employees and within the
community.  The products of this research will provide a baseline measure of corporate sector
response and should suggest some of the most productive avenues for enhancing both the internal
handling of this problem and the integration of the corporate sector with other respondents.

Under the Violence Against Women Act, NIJ is currently supporting four projects:

     A National Academy of Sciences panel of experts from various disciplines to develop         a research agenda to improve the development of preventive, educative, social, and        legal
strategies, including the needs of underserved populations;

     An assessment of the feasibility of creating centralized state databases on the 
      incidence of sexual and domestic violence;

     A study on the means by which the addresses of victims of domestic violence may             be obtained by abusive partners; and

     A project addressing: 1) medical and psychological testimony on the validity of                                                                                                  battered women's syndrome as a psychological condition, 2) a compilation of
State,           tribal, and Federal court cases in which evidence of battered women's syndrome was                                                                                   offered in criminal trials, and 3) an assessment by State, tribal, and Federal judges,    
prosecutors, and defense attorneys on the effects that evidence of battered women's     syndrome
may have in criminal trials. This project is being conducted with support and           cooperation from
the State Justice Institute and the National Institute of Mental 

Other NIJ responsibilities under the Violence Against Women Act include the development of a
report on the status and impact of stalking laws and the development, management, and
dissemination of an evaluation program that provides ongoing findings to refine policy and
programs on violence against women. 

IV. Anticipated Plans 

Family and domestic violence will continue to be a major focus of the NIJ research program. 
Research and evaluation on child abuse; violence against women, including domestic violence and
stalking; and elder abuse will continue to be solicited in the years ahead.  With the new Violence
Against Women Act, NIJ has a particular focus on evaluative research in this area.  An initial FY
95 request for proposals addresses the evaluation and research requirements related to the Act. The
announced solicitation responds to both the Congressional and public demand for accountability and
the need to develop a knowledge base that examines policy and programmatic experiences and
continually recommends improvements to them.  This is the first announcement of a planned multi-year evaluation strategy.  The solicitation drew upon a strategic planning workshop that NIJ held
with HHS in March 1995.  The solicitation seeks to support a national implementation evaluation;
individual program evaluations; and other research and evaluation projects concerning the Violence
Against Women Act, related issues, and family 

violence issues. Thus, over the next several years, an ongoing refinement of the program is
anticipated as research and evaluation informs the program development process.  

The various family violence studies that are concluding this year will result in NIJ publications that
offer insights and recommendations for improvements in the criminal justice system response to
family violence. Included among new publications is a descriptive study of Hawaii's hospital-based
home visitation program for identifying parents at risk of committing child abuse and neglect, which
was commissioned under NIJ's Research Applications Contract.  Studies to be supported over the
next year will build upon this expanding knowledge base on family violence and address the next
critical questions for improvements in criminal justice policy and practice. 

Over the next year, the Institute will look for new partnerships, as well as continue current ones,
with bureaus in the Department of Justice, other Federal agencies, and private foundations, in order
to effectively address the multidimensional problem of violence within our families.
                   OFFICE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE 

I. Legislative Mandate

The mission of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is to provide
national leadership, direction, coordination, and resources to prevent, treat, and control juvenile
delinquency; improve the effectiveness and fairness of the juvenile justice system; and address
the problem of missing and exploited children. In fulfilling this mission, OJJDP contributes to
developing the full potential of America's most valuable resource - its youth.  

In 1974, Congress enacted the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act (Public
Law 93-415, 42 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.).  This landmark legislation established OJJDP to provide
Federal leadership and support to State and local governments in their efforts to prevent
delinquency and improve the juvenile justice system.  The Act requires OJJDP to address
juvenile justice issues in a comprehensive, coordinated manner and to support research, training,
and program initiatives that respond to a broad spectrum of juvenile justice issues.  Specifically,
Section 261(a)(4 and 5) of the JJDP Act of 1974, as amended, states OJJDP's mandate regarding
families as "establishing or supporting programs (including self-help programs for parents)
stressing advocacy activities aimed at improving services to juveniles affected by the juvenile
justice system, including services that provide for the appointment of special advocates by courts
for such juveniles, including programs that work with families during the incarceration of
juvenile family members and which take into consideration the special needs of families with
limited-English speaking ability; and developing or supporting model programs to strengthen
and maintain the family unit in order to prevent or treat juvenile delinquency." 

OJJDP carries out its policies, programs, and goals through the coordinated activities of its seven
components: 1) Research and Program Development Division, 2) Training and Technical
Assistance Division, 3) Special Emphasis Division, 4) State Relations and Assistance Division,
5) Information Dissemination and Planning Unit, 6) Concentration of Federal Efforts Program,
and 7) Missing and Exploited Children's Program.  The 1992 reauthorization of the JJDP Act
authorizes OJJDP to support a number of new priority program areas, including:  hate crime
education, gender bias and gender-specific services, mentoring, boot camps, due process and
right to counsel, services to juveniles in secure custody, graduated sanctions, and family
involvement in the treatment of delinquents.  

The reauthorizations of the JJDP Act focus our attention and activities on family violence and
other pressing juvenile justice issues of the day.  Through a variety of initiatives, OJJDP
continues to address the important issues of family violence.

II.    Background and History 

Prevention, intervention, treatment, and the study of family violence are common threads
through many OJJDP endeavors, even though previous programs or research projects have not
focused solely on "family violence" or utilized it as a main theme.  

The Missing and Exploited Children's Program has addressed family violence issues while
meeting its mandate to coordinate activities pertaining to missing and exploited children--preventing abductions, investigating cases, locating missing and exploited children and reuniting
them with their families, providing treatment, and prosecuting abductors.  Since 1984, OJJDP
has been the principal funding source for the National Center for Missing and Exploited
Children (NCMEC), a private nonprofit organization spearheading national efforts to locate and
recover missing children and raise public awareness about the prevention of child abduction,
molestation, and sexual exploitation.  The OJJDP/NCMEC partnership coordinates the efforts of
law enforcement agencies, social service providers, elected officials, judges, prosecutors,
educators, and public and private organizations to address crimes against children.

OJJDP Research and Program Development Division projects have touched on family violence
issues in a number of studies.  Among the most notable are "Families of Missing Children, Final
Report" prepared by the Center for the Study of Trauma, University of California, San
Francisco, and submitted to OJJDP in 1992,  "Child Victim as Witness Research and
Development Program: Final Report," prepared by D. Whitcomb, et al.; and "Strengthening
America's Families: Promising Parenting Strategies for Delinquency Prevention, User's Guide,"
prepared by the University of Utah and the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation and
submitted to OJJDP in 1992.

OJJDP's Program of Research on Causes and Correlates has clarified the relationship between
the family and serious, violent, and chronic juvenile delinquency.  Low family socioeconomic
status has been found to be associated with chronic delinquency.  In addition, low family
socioeconomic status is correlated with other risk factors that have been linked with
delinquency, including large family size, perinatal complications, parental mental illness, and
low levels of parent education.  Research has shown that poor family attachment is directly
related to both serious delinquency and drug use.  Poor parenting behavior (failure to
communicate with and monitor children) and parental conflicts (inconsistency of punishment
and avoidance of discipline) are also related to subsequent serious delinquency.

These OJJDP studies have shed new light on the relationship between domestic violence and
subsequent violent behavior by children in violent families.  This research, conducted at the
State University of New York at Albany, shows that:

      Abused children are more likely to commit violent offenses when they get older than
       are children not abused in the home;

      The percentage of children committing violent offenses increases over 20% when they
       are exposed to only one form of family violence (domestic violence, family climate of
       hostility, and child maltreatment); and

      Adolescents from multiple violent families are twice as likely to be violent as those
       from non-violent families.

OJJDP has developed "A Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile
Offenders" that calls for early intervention in troubled families that produce such juvenile
offenders.  Program development work is underway that will identify effective prevention,
intervention, and treatment programs for inclusion in the strategy.  An Implementation Guide
containing an inventory of promising and successful program models will be provided to all
interested jurisdictions.  Priority is being given to identifying successful programs that work
with troubled families that have children zero to three years old and treatment programs for
violent offenders.

OJJDP has provided support to the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges to
develop model practices for juvenile and family courts in handling domestic violence cases. 
Improved coordination among social services, child care agencies, and the courts is expected to
result from adoption of these practices.

III.  Current Programs 

National Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA).  OJJDP has provided more than $4
million since 1986 to the National Court Appointed Special Advocate Association (CASA) to
assist in the development of new CASA programs, that provide trained volunteer advocates for
abused and neglected children in the court system.

Improving the Juvenile and Family Courts' Handling of Child Abuse and Neglect Cases: A
Model Training and Technical Assistance Program.  The purpose of this project is to develop
model approaches and programs to improve juvenile and family court systems' handling of child
abuse and neglect cases.  The model programs developed by the National Council of Juvenile
and Family Court Judges will be designed to assist State courts in the implementation of training
and technical assistance for judicial personnel, attorneys and other key people in juvenile and
family courts; administrative reform in juvenile and family courts; and improve procedures for
determining whether child service agencies have made "reasonable efforts" to prevent

Child Abuse and Exploitation Investigative Techniques Training Program.  Since 1982,
OJJDP has provided training for thousands of national, State and local law enforcement officers
on the investigation of child abuse and exploitation as well as technical assistance on the
investigation of specific cases of child abuse.  The five-day program utilizes 

experienced, active child abuse investigators for this training and technical assistance.  A 
second advanced course on investigative techniques and resources on missing and exploited
child cases is now being offered to those who have completed the basic course:  This three-day
advanced training and technical assistance program is handled through a contract with Fox
Valley Technical College in Appleton, Wisconsin.  Training is provided as requested by
individual police departments.  The program utilizes active law enforcement investigators
experienced in missing and exploited child cases as trainers.  

Child Abuse Prosecution Training and Technical Assistance.  A grant was awarded to the
American Prosecutors Research Institute to support programs of the National Center for the
Prosecution of Child Abuse.  A major goal of the Center is to improve the quality of child abuse
prosecution by assisting elected or appointed prosecutors at the local, State and Federal levels. 
The Center's major services to prosecutors include providing training, technical assistance, and
publications in the subject area.  The workshops, conferences, and informational materials also
benefit law enforcement, social workers, therapists, and other personnel handling child abuse

Child Abuse and Exploitation Team Investigative Program.  CAE-TIP is an intensive "team"
program designed for a four-member local team.  Participants for this course are four-member
local teams represented by law enforcement, prosecution, social services, and medical (optional). 
The focus of the program is the development of an interagency process and protocols for the
enhanced enforcement, prevention and intervention of child abuse cases.  Hands-on, team
activity involving investigations, case preparation and prosecution form the basis of this fast-paced offering.  Teams are assisted in the development of their own interagency implementation
plan for the improved management and investigation of these important and sensitive cases. 

Basic Investigative Techniques for Missing and Abducted Child Cases (BITMAC).  This 40
hour investigative techniques training program is specifically designed for law enforcement
personnel charged with the responsibility of investigating and managing cases of missing and
abducted children.  The program was designed, developed, and is presented by law enforcement
personnel with specific hands-on expertise in investigating cases of missing and abducted
children.  The program is designed to address the needs of both large and small law enforcement
agencies.  The instruction in this program is continually updated to incorporate the most recent
research and state-of-the-art techniques available.

National Network of Children's Advocacy Centers.  A grant was awarded to the National
Network of Children's Advocacy Centers to provide training and technical assistance to help
develop or expand local children's advocacy centers.  The Network helps communities respond
to child abuse by facilitating multi-disciplinary cooperation and coordination through
customized, subsidized training at local sites.

Model Treatment and Services Approaches for Mental Health Professionals Working with
Families of Missing Children.  A grant was awarded to the Western Center for Child Protection
to provide mental health personnel with effective treatment approaches for rehabilitating
families traumatized by child abduction and faced with re-establishing a state of normalcy in its

Investigation and Prosecution of Parental Abduction Cases.  A grant was awarded to the
American Prosecutors Research Institute to assist local prosecutors in bringing more informed
and more effective prosecution of non-custodial parents who abduct their children.  The project,
among other things, identifies the legal and social issues in these cases, analyzes and summarizes
existing research in this area, identifies experts who handle these cases, and produces and
disseminates legal analysis and guidelines for local prosecutors and law enforcement agencies
concerning such cases.

Remember, They're Children: Using Video to Train Law Enforcement.  A grant was
awarded to the University of Southern Maine to minimize the negative impact of law
enforcement investigative procedures on maltreated children.  This was accomplished by
developing and innovatively disseminating to law enforcement personnel a comprehensive video
training curriculum designed to improve investigative responses to child victims of
maltreatment.  The National Child Welfare Resource Center will provide small- and medium-sized departments with the resources to train and support their staff on how to conduct effective,
but non-traumatizing, child abuse investigations.

Missing and Exploited Children Comprehensive Action Program (MCAP).  A grant was
awarded to the Public Administration Service to manage MCAP, a multi-agency juvenile
services coordination community action program.  Primary program activity provides directed
and supportive training and technical assistance to encourage, guide, and focus community
development and planning on important missing and exploited children issues.  The resulting
program development provides programmatic, policy, and procedural approaches.  It also
encourages multi-agency community organization planning and delivery of services to focus
more cooperatively and responsively on recognized missing and exploited children problems and
needed services.

Family Life, Delinquency, and Crime: A Policymaker's Guide.  This report was prepared by
Kevin N. Wright, Ph.D., and Karen E. Wright, M.S.W., under an interagency agreement
between OJJDP and the Bureau of Justice Assistance.  Published by OJJDP in May 1994, the
report advances our understanding of the significant effects of family life on delinquency and
crime.  It describes how positive parental involvement deters delinquent behavior, while its
absence--or worse, its negative counterpart--fosters misconduct.  The monograph reviews the
research literature that explores the development of delinquent and criminal tendencies.  It is
written for policymakers, administrators, and agency personnel who may have considerable
practical experience in crime control and delinquency prevention and treatment, but who may
not have an extensive background in research methodology.

Study of Child Abuse Offenders.  Under the National Child Protection Act of 1993, Section
2(f) requires the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
(OJJDP) to study and report on child abuse offenders.  The report will be based on a secondary
analysis of existing data, namely the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) Survey of Inmates in
State Correctional Facilities from 1991.  Once completed the report will reflect what is known
about the most serious and dangerous child abusers in the nation.  Additionally, the report will
detail current projects and ongoing research that OJJDP and BJS have funded in this subject
area.  It is anticipated that this report, developed by OJJDP in cooperation with BJS, will be
delivered to Congress in the Fall of 1995.

Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs.  The 1992 amendment to the
JJDP Act authorized Title V, "Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs." 
Through this program, funds are provided to States for sub-granting to local governments that
may support prevention activities focused on at-risk children, teenagers, and their families. 
Some of the risk factors relating to adolescent problem behaviors that will be addressed by Title
V Prevention Programs include: family history of high risk behavior, family management
problems, family conflict, and parental attitudes and involvement.

IV.  Anticipated Plans

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is committed to designing programs
to help parents, communities, and practitioners address the problems of juvenile crime and help
stem the wave of violence that is plaguing our nation.  As a major component of this effort,
OJJDP developed "A Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile
Offenders."   OJJDP has used this strategy to formulate a major, discretionary program concept
entitled "SafeFutures: Partnerships to Reduce Youth Violence and Delinquency."  Through a
range of SafeFutures program components from Family Strengthening and Mentoring to Day
Treatment and Graduated Sanctions through Aftercare, OJJDP is providing each of five
SafeFutures' sites with funding and a comprehensive technical assistance package.  With these
resources, the sites are focusing program efforts on a targeted neighborhood to: 1) concentrate
efforts on preventing youth violence and delinquency through reducing risk factors and
increasing protective factors; 2) develop a continuum of care for juveniles consisting of both
institutional and systems change and a focused effort on the most at-risk youth and families in
the jurisdiction; 3) build the capacity to institutionalize and sustain coordinated efforts; and 4)
focus on outcomes.  The continuation of the SafeFutures program will be a major priority of
OJJDP over the next few years.  Because dysfunctional or violent families are a risk factor for
delinquency and related negative behaviors, OJJDP will use the SafeFutures program to address
these family-related issues in Fiscal Year 1996.  
                   OFFICE FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME

I. Legislative Mandate

The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) was established in 1984 as a result of the Victims of
Crime Act (VOCA).  OVC is responsible for administering and managing deposits into the
Crime Victims Fund.  Furthermore, OVC makes grants available for training and technical
assistance to eligible crime victims compensation programs, including programs compensating
victims of domestic violence; and eligible crime victims assistance programs, with priority given
to those programs that provide assistance to victims of sexual assault, spousal abuse or child

II. Background and History

The 1988 amendment to VOCA mandates that State compensation programs extend benefits to
victims of domestic violence as a condition of continued eligibility for Federal funding.  Prior to
these amendments, victims of domestic violence were often denied compensation benefits solely
based on their relationship to the offender.  Since these mandates, over half of all VOCA victims
assistance grant funds are awarded to public and private nonprofit organizations providing
services to victims of domestic violence, including victims of child abuse.  

OVC has given priority consideration to awarding state formula victim assistance funding to
programs serving victims of sexual assault, spousal abuse and child abuse.  Furthermore, OVC
has awarded discretionary grants to crime victims assistance programs for technical assistance
services and training for criminal justice system professionals and victim service providers.

VOCA also requires the OVC to review Federal law enforcement compliance with Federal
victim assistance statutes and strengthen and expand services for Federal crime victims.  The
Victims of Child Abuse Act (passed as part of the 1990 Crime Control Act) emphasizes
children's rights and requires the Federal justice system to adapt procedures to the needs and
abilities of child victims and witnesses.  Examples of requirements in that Act include speedy
trials; alternatives to live, in-court testimony; appointment of a guardian ad litem or adult
attendant; and a multidisciplinary approach to reduce the number of child interviews.

III. Current Programs

Discretionary Grant Program

OVC initiated the Children's Justice Act Discretionary Grant Program for Native
Americans (CJA) in 1990.  Annually, OVC awards 8 to 10 grants to Indian tribes to improve
the investigation, prosecution, and handling of cases of child sexual abuse and serious child
physical abuse in a manner that increases support for and reduces trauma to child victims.  The
program goal is to strengthen existing child abuse programs or develop new programs that deal
effectively with cases of child sexual abuse and serious child physical abuse and to promote
these projects as models for other tribes to use in developing similar programs.  

The CJA program is the only source of Federal funding for tribes that focuses on improving the
criminal justice process for Native American child abuse victims and their families.  A total of
$1,500,000 is available annually for this grant program.   Grants are made directly to Indian
tribes and tribal organizations to address a range of systemic improvements.  Since CJA was
established in 1989, OVC has funded 28 different tribal programs to support training for
multidisciplinary teams, revision of tribal codes to address child sexual abuse, child advocacy
services for children involved in court proceedings, development of protocols for reporting,
investigating, prosecuting, and treating child sexual abuse; and improved case management and
treatment services.  In 1994, OVC funded a $100,000 project to provide training and technical
assistance to the tribes that received CJA grants.  That project will be continued through fiscal
year 1996.

Multijurisdictional, Interagency Model for Investigating and Prosecuting Cases of Child
Pornography and Juvenile Prostitution.  A $224,974 grant was awarded to the Education
Development Center of Newton, Massachusetts.  The grant combines the resources of the Office
for Victims of Crime and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to develop a
model victim services component/protocol for multijurisdictional task forces working on cases
of child pornography and juvenile prostitution.  A prototype of this model has been implemented
at one site.  The model links criminal justice personnel to sources of victim assistance when
child victims are identified in juvenile prostitution or pornography cases.  The project also
initiated an effort to raise public awareness of the harm associated with the various forms of
child sexual exploitation.  A manual featuring the protocol and the process for its development
and implementation has also been published to facilitate replication in other cities.  

Victim Assistance in Indian Country Program (VAIC).  The VAIC grant program provides
funding to States to establish "on-reservation" victim assistance programs for Federal crime
victims in Indian country, where the U.S. Government is responsible for investigating and
prosecuting crimes.  Recently, OVC has funded approximately 35 programs which provide
services such as crisis intervention, emergency shelter for family violence victims, mental health
counseling, and court advocacy.  To date, $5,438,640 has been expended on this program.  In
FY 1994, 19 states received a total of $773,045 to make awards directly to Indian tribes to
establish victim assistance programs in Native American communities.  These programs provide
many services to child victims.

National Scope Training and Technical Assistance Projects

OVC has funded national scope training and technical assistance projects that focus on special
categories of victims, such as child victims, the elderly, and minorities.  Other projects targeted
specific professional groups, such as law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and judges, as well
as corrections, probation, and parole personnel.  In addition, training and technical assistance
have been provided to victim service providers and allied professionals who work with victims,
such as mental health professionals and the clergy.  Some projects have addressed
multidisciplinary audiences, composed of representatives from different fields.  In Fiscal Year
1994, OVC provided funds to 11 States to help support nine statewide, and two regional multi-disciplinary, victim-related training conferences.  One common theme that runs through each of
these projects is an emphasis on the recognition, importance, and dynamics of family violence,
and how best to assist those who have been victimized within their family environment.

Other training and technical assistance projects funded by OVC have focused specifically on
family violence issues.  One such project provided support to the American Professional
Society on the Abuse of Children to convene a National Colloquium in June 1993.  The
Colloquium brought together a range of 500 professionals who serve child victims and provide
intensive, interdisciplinary training and discussion on the most resistant problems they face in
treating and advocating for children.

In another project, the Fernside Center for Grieving Children conducted a series of
conferences for educators, victim service providers, and school professionals to respond more
effectively to inner city and Native American children who have lost a loved one through violent

The Police Executive Research Forum was funded to develop a training curriculum for law
enforcement policymakers and officers on the most effective procedures and policies for
responding to incidents of family violence involving elderly people, and to insure that the
curriculum developed could be easily integrated with other police academy curricular materials.  

Parents of Murdered Children (POMC), a national self-help organization for parents and their
children who experience a violent homicide in their family, was awarded a grant to develop a
POMC Chapter Leader and Contact People Training Manual and present regional training
seminars for leaders who wish to initiate POMC Chapters in their own communities.  Services
they provide include:  self-help groups that meet regularly; information about the grieving
process and the criminal justice system; and communication with professionals in the helping
fields about the problems faced by those surviving a homicide victim.  

From 1986 to 1992, OVC received funds from the Department of Health and Human Services
(DHHS) to administer the Law Enforcement Training and Technical Assistance 

portion of the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act.  During that time, a total of $3.4
million was transferred to OVC from DHHS.  This money provided funding for 27 projects
nationwide to improve law enforcement's response to family violence incidents by promoting
pro-arrest or mandatory arrest policies; encouraging full reporting; increasing coordination with
other community services; improving on-scene investigations; establishing policies and
procedures guiding the law enforcement response to these cases; and producing and
disseminating informational materials for victims.

Training and Technical Assistance for Federal Criminal Justice Officials.
Efforts include training programs for Federal prosecutors, investigators, and victim-witness
coordinators on handling child abuse cases in the Federal criminal justice system.  

Since 1988, OVC has sponsored the participation of Federal criminal justice personnel at the
National Symposium on Child Sexual Abuse in Huntsville, Alabama.  U.S. Attorneys'
Offices nominate multidisciplinary teams consisting of Federal prosecutors, criminal
investigators, and victim-witness coordinators to attend this specialized training.  A Federal
Training Day precedes the symposium and focuses on handling child sexual abuse cases in the
Federal criminal justice system. 

A cooperative agreement among OVC and other Department of Justice components to
provide training to Federal prosecutors on preparing and prosecuting child sexual abuse and
exploitation cases resulted in a specialized training course that was presented to over 70 Federal
prosecutors in June 1993.  

OVC co-sponsored the "Four Corners Indian Country Victims' Rights - Child Abuse
Conference," which brought together approximately 200 Federal, tribal, and State prosecutors,
law enforcement officials, and health, social services, and victim assistance professionals who
work in Indian country on behalf of child victims, in Durango, Colorado, in August 1993. Four
contiguous U.S. Attorneys' Offices jointly presented this four-day conference which featured
interactive, regional problem-solving workshops and concluded with a very successful Federal
child sexual abuse mock trial.  

This effort was so successful that OVC has designated $50,000 to fund similar multi-disciplinary
training efforts in individual Federal Districts in Fiscal Year 1994.

OVC sponsored up to 30 scholarships for Federal law enforcement officers to attend the 1994
"Crimes Against Children" seminar presented by the Dallas Police Department and the
Dallas Children's Advocacy Center.  The three-day seminar focused on investigating and
handling child homicide, serious child physical and sexual abuse, and child exploitation cases.

Formula Grant Program

The Victim Assistance State Grant Program is a rich source of services for domestic violence
and child abuse victims.  From 1986 through 1994 States have allocated over 50 percent of
VOCA victim assistance funds (over $185 million) to this area.  Services under these programs
included intervention, group therapy, court accompaniment, transportation, emergency shelter,
and counseling for victims of domestic violence and child abuse.  

The State Crime Victim Compensation Program is another major resource for child victims and
their families. Surpassing all other categories of victims seeking financial assistance from victim
compensation programs, the number of innocent child victims receiving benefits has accelerated
dramatically since the inception of the Federal VOCA Crime Victim Compensation Program. 
Awards for child victims surged from approximately $13 million in FY 1986 to over $48 million
in FY 1994.  Additionally, nearly 30 percent of all compensation awards were paid on behalf of
adult and child victims of domestic violence in FY 1994.

Support for Grieving and Bereaved Children is a cooperative agreement with the National
Organization for Victim Assistance to further OVC's commitment to assist victim service
providers to aid children who are grieving as a result of violent crime, whether it be as victims
themselves, as relatives of injured or murdered victims, or as witnesses of violent acts.

Additionally, OVC will continue to integrate information focusing on family violence into
training and technical assistance activities and into materials produced by the majority of the
discretionary projects funded by the Office.  Specifically, the topic will be covered in the
training and technical assistance that will be provided to corrections personnel, the clergy,
mental health practitioners, the media, and law enforcement.  The subject will also be
highlighted as a segment of a curriculum for youth on the impact of crime on victims, which is
to be developed under one of the new initiatives.  Finally, another series of State and regional
multi-disciplinary training conferences on victims' issues will be sponsored, all of which will
include a number of workshops on family violence.  The regional workshops on elder abuse will
be co-sponsored with the Administration on Aging (HHS), the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the
National Institute of Justice, the National  Sheriff's Association and the American Association of
Retired Persons.  The initial law enforcement "train the trainers" grants designed to provide
officers with the best methods to respond to family violence have been completed.  And as
planned, the curricular materials have been incorporated in the regular police academy training
requirements in all the states where the grants were awarded.

Fiscal Year 1995 Program Plan

Expanding Resources for Children's Advocacy Centers 
OVC will provide $100,000 to combine efforts with OJJDP and private non-profit organizations
to identify and fill current needs of children's  advocacy centers (CACs)  and other service
providers.  OVC will collaborate with these organizations to fund programs that expand
resources for multidisciplinary teams and extend the concept of teamwork used by CACs to
other kinds of crimes, such as family violence.

Violence Against Women:  Training and Technical Assistance to Combat Violence Against
Women   OVC will provide $200,000 to help the Department implement the recently enacted
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA).  OVC funding will be allocated for the development of
model policies and procedures on implementation and enforcement of  the Full Faith and Credit
provisions, and to train state and local criminal justice components and advocates.  

IV.  Anticipated Plans

Under VOCA, Federal money has effectively augmented State money to create cooperative
partnerships for the benefit of victims of all violent crimes, including domestic violence;
however, additional funding must be acquired to address the needs of increased numbers of
crime victims and newly-recognized, complex victimization issues.  Significant challenges, not
contemplated at the time VOCA was enacted in 1984, are emerging.   

Violence against women issues are now receiving attention, and legislative approaches to the
injustice are being formulated.  Law enforcement officers and prosecutors are challenged by
practical enforcement issues as well as constitutional issues arising with respect to new anti-stalking legislation enacted across the country.  The solutions to these issues are not easy; they
will require money, effort, commitment, and an openness to innovative possibilities.  

As the Federal agency charged with advocating for victims, OVC has worked to identify
emerging issues that must be addressed to strengthen the rights and advance the fair treatment of
crime victims.  The Office's discretionary grant program plans, grantee and subgrantee
performance reports, and special initiatives reflect the quality of OVC's leadership in the field. 
Increased deposits into the Crime Victims Fund will enable OVC to make larger formula awards
to the States, improve training opportunities for victim service providers and criminal justice
system professionals, and expand services to victims of Federal crimes.  


I.  Legislative Mandate

The Violence Against Women Grants Office was created within the Office of Justice Programs
(OJP) in 1994 to establish the policy for and administer the formula and discretionary grant
programs authorized by the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, which is part of the Violent
Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.  The Office provides technical assistance to
State and tribal government officials in planning innovative and effective criminal justice
responses to violent crimes committed against women.  

II.  Current Programs

S T O P Violence Against Women Formula Grants

The Violence Against Women Act authorizes formula grants to develop and enhance effective
law enforcement and prosecution strategies to combat violence against women, and also create
and expand the array of services available for victims of such violence -- in effect, a seamless
system for women who have been, or potentially could be, victimized by violence.  The grant
program is called S T O P (Services Training Officers Prosecutors) Violence Against
Women.  The grants are intended to promote a new dialogue among law enforcement officials,
prosecutors, and victim service providers to create an integrated criminal justice system response
to the needs of battered and sexually assaulted women.  The goal of the program is to encourage
States and localities to restructure and strengthen the criminal justice response to be proactive in
dealing with violence against women.

States that receive S T O P Violence Against Women formula grants funds are required by
statute to engage in a multidisciplinary planning process involving law enforcement; prosecu-
tion; non-profit, non-governmental victim service providers, including domestic violence and
sexual assault coalitions; key criminal justice practitioners; and community leaders to develop a
coordinated and integrated strategy to address violence against women.  Funds may be used to
support seven broad purposes:

  Training for law enforcement officers and prosecutors to identify and respond more
   effectively to violent crimes against women;

  Development, training, or expansion of special units of law enforcement officers and prose-
   cutors to respond to violent crimes against women;

  Development and improvement of data collection and communications systems linking
   police, prosecutors, and courts, or to identify and track arrests, protection orders, violations
   of protection orders, and convictions;

  Development and implementation of more effective police and prosecution policies
   and services for preventing and responding to violent crimes against women;

  Creation or enhancement of victim services programs, including the delivery of programs to
   previously underserved populations, such as minorities and disabled women;

  Development of programs addressing stalking; and

  Development and enhancement of programs that focus on the special needs of Indian
   tribes in addressing violent crimes.

States must allocate 25 percent of the amount they receive each year to police programs, 25
percent to prosecution programs, and 25 percent to nonprofit, nongovernmental victim services
programs.  The remaining 25 percent of the grant may be allocated as each State sees fit, as long
as it is used to support one of the Act's seven purposes.  The Fiscal Year 1995 grants will be
awarded by June 1995.

The Violence Against Women Grants Office is holding a conference for all formula grantees on
July 27 - 29, 1995, in Washington, D.C.  The conference will showcase promising programs that
operate in the context of a seamless system.  Strategies to enhance collaborative efforts among
police, prosecution, and nonprofit, nongovernmental victim services programs and create a
seamless system will be highlighted.

Follow-up technical assistance also will be available to formula grant recipients through site
visits to carefully selected promising programs. 

S T O P Violence Against Indian Women Discretionary Grants

The Violence Against Women Act stipulates that four percent of the amount appropriated each
year under the law enforcement and prosecution grants will be available for Indian tribal
governments.  Therefore, in addition to the formula grant program, the Violence Against
Women Grants Office will award, in Fiscal Year 1995, discretionary grants of up to $75,000
directly to Indian tribal governments.  The grants may be used for the same general purposes as
the formula grants.  The goal is to develop and strengthen the tribal justice system's response to
violent crimes committed against Indian women.

III.  Anticipated Plans

The funding authorized for these grant programs in Fiscal Year 1995 is only a down payment to
support the initial phase of a six-year commitment to address a range of criminal justice issues
relating to violence against women.  The authorized funding level increases fivefold for Fiscal
Year 1996.  Such a commitment of funds will further enhance States' and Indian tribal
governments' ability to provide services and resources to previously underserved populations,
and increase the number and types of programs available to women who have been, or
potentially could be, victims of violent crime.  Funding is authorized through the year 2000.

In addition to the S T O P Violence Against Women formula and discretionary grant
programs, the Violence Against Women Act authorizes three other initiatives that the Violence
Against Women Grants Office will implement in Fiscal Year 1996, assuming Congressional
Grants to encourage mandatory arrest or pro-arrest programs and policies in police departments
in connection with domestic violence incidents will be available to States, local jurisdictions, and
Indian tribal governments.  These grants will permit jurisdictions to coordinate communications
between police, prosecutors, and criminal and family court judges and managers through
computer systems that will track events like violations of protection orders; centralize and
coordinate police enforcement, prosecution, and judicial responsibility for domestic violence
cases through the introduction of special police and prosecution units and domestic violence
courts; enhance criminal and family court judges' understanding of the dynamics of domestic
violence and appropriate sanctions for offenders; and strengthen legal advocacy and service
programs for victims of domestic violence.

The unique problems domestic violence and child abuse cases pose for rural States and
jurisdictions will be the focus of a separate grant program beginning in Fiscal Year 1996.  These
grants will permit rural States and localities, Indian tribal governments, and other public or
private entities in rural States and jurisdictions to implement or expand cooperative efforts
among law enforcement officers, prosecutors, victim advocacy groups, and others to investigate
and prosecute domestic violence and child abuse cases; provide treatment and counseling to
victims of these crimes; and work with the community to develop comprehensive education and
prevention strategies.

Finally, the Violence Against Women Act authorizes a comprehensive training program for
probation and parole officers and other criminal justice personnel who work with released sex
offenders.  The goal is to enhance the manner in which they manage such cases and supervise
such offenders.  

All of these programs recognize that change will not occur in the manner in which cases
involving violence against women are handled unless the various components of the criminal
justice and victim service systems work together to provide a comprehensive and integrated
array of sanctions for offenders and services for the women they victimize.

"Bitter Earth: Child Sexual Abuse in Indian Country," A 45-Minute film produced under
the sponsorship of the Office for Victims Of Crime, 1993.

"Child Rape Victims, 1992," Patrick A. Langan and Caroline Wolf Harlow, Crime Data
Brief, Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 1994.
"Criminal Victimization 1993," Lisa Bastian, Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 1995.

"Criminal Victimization in the United States, 1991," National Crime Victimization Survey
Report, Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 1992.

"The Cycle of Violence," Cathy Spatz Widom, Research in Brief, National Institute of
Justice, October 1992.

"The Emotional Effects of Testifying on Sexually Abused Children," Deborah Whitcomb,
Gail S. Goodman, Desmond K. Runyan, and Shirley Hoak, Research in Brief, National
Institute of Justice, April 1994.

"Family Life, Delinquency, and Crime: A Policymaker's Guide," Kevin N. Wright and
Karen E. Wright, Research Summary, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention, May 1994.

"Family Strengthening in Preventing Delinquency - A Literature Review," Karol
Kumpher, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1994.

"Family Violence: Interventions for the Justice System," Program Brief, Bureau of Justice
Assistance, October 1993.

"Female Victims of Violent Crime," Carolyn Wolf Harlow, Bureau of Justice Statistics,
January 1991.

"Helping to Prevent Child Abuse and Its Future Criminal Consequences: Hawaii Healthy
Start," Ralph Earle, Program Focus, National Institute of Justice, 1995.

"Highlights from 20 Years of Surveying Crime Victims," The National Crime
Victimization Survey, 1973-92, Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 1993.

"Improving the Police Response to Domestic Elder Abuse: Instructor Training Manual,"
Prepared by the Police Executive Research Forum for the Office for Victims of Crime,
September, 1993.

"Joint Investigations of Child Abuse: Report of a Symposium," Research Report, National
Institute of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention, and the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, July 1993.

"Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Thrownaway Children in America," David Finklehor,
Gerry Hotaling, Andrea Sedlak, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,
"Murder in Families," John M. Dawson and Patrick A. Langan, Bureau of Justice
Statistics Special Report, July 1994.

"New Approach to Interviewing Children: A Test of Its Effectiveness," Research in Brief,
National Institute of Justice, May 1992.

"Obstacles to the Recovery and Return of Parentally Abducted Children," Linda K.
Girdner and Patricia M. Hoff, Research Summary, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention, 1994.

"Parental Abductors: Four Interviews," Geoffrey Greif, Video in VHS format, Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1993.

"Police and Child Abuse: New Policies for Expanded Responsibilities," Susan E. Martin
and Douglas J. Besharov, Issues and Practices, National Institute of Justice, June 1991.

"Preserving Families To Prevent Delinquency," Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1992.

"Prosecuting Child Physical Abuse Cases: A Case Study in San Diego," Barbara Smith,
Research in Brief, National Institute of Justice, June 1995.

A Report of the Violence Against Women Research Strategic Planning Workshop,
Sponsored by the National Intitute of Justice in Cooperation with the Department of
Health and Human Services, March 31, 1995.

"Strengthening America's Families: Promising Parenting and Family Strategies for
Delinquency Prevention," Karol Kumpfer, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention, 1992.

"Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse - Later Criminal Consequences," Cathy Spatz
Widom, Research in Brief, National Institute of Justice, March 1995.

"Violence Against Women," Ronet Bachman, National Crime Victimization Survey
Report, Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 1994.

"Violence Against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned National Crime Victimization
Survey," Ronet Bachman and Linda E. Saltzman, Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 1995.

"Violence Between Intimates," Marianne Zawitz, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Selected
Findings, November 1994.

"VOCA: Helping Victims of Child Abuse," Robin V. Delany-Shabazz, Fact Sheet, Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June 1995.

"When the Victim is a Child," Deborah Whitcomb, Issues and Practices, National Institute
of Justice, March 1992.

For additional publications and reports on justice issues in family violence contact the
National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20850.  Phone Toll
Free 800 851-3420 or Locally 301 251-5500.

Office of Justice Programs
   Noel Brennan, Deputy Assistant Attorney General  202 307-5933 
   Mai Fernandez, Special Assistant to the Deputy Assistant Attorney General 
                 202 616-3205

   Indian Desk
       Ada Melton  202  616-9053 

   Violence Against Women Grants Office
       Kathy Schwartz, Administrator  202 307-6026       
       Catherine Pierce  202 307-6785
       Jacqueline Agtuca  202 307-6015 

   Bureau of Justice Assistance    
       Robert Kirchner  202 307-5974
       Jennifer Knobe  202 616-3212
       Crime Act Support Division
       Patricia Dobbs, Chief  202 307-0907
       Edison Aponte  202 307-3180
       Kim Cross  202 307-3159
       Felicia Wintz  202 307-1437

   Bureau of Justice Statistics    
       Michael Rand  202 616-3494

   National Institute of Justice   
       Bernard Auchter, Family Violence/Violence Against Women  202 307-0154 
       Cheri Crawford  202 514-6210
       Sam McQuade  202 307-0200
       Lois Mock  202 307-0693
       Richard Titus, Victimization Research  202 307-0695

   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention    
       Barbara Allen-Hagen  202 307-1308
       Sharie Cantelon  202 616-3658
       Ron Laney, Missing and Exploited Children's Program  202 616-3637
   Office for Victims of Crime 
       Jackie McCann Cleland  202 307-5948
       Marti Speights  202 514-6444
       Duane Ragan  202 307-5948
       Olga Trujillo  202 616-3585