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Technologies of Crime: The Cyber-Attacks on Electronic Gambling Machines

NCJ Number
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice Volume: 45 Issue: 2 Dated: April 2003 Pages: 159-186
John L. McMullan; David C. Perrier
Julian V. Roberts
Date Published
April 2003
28 pages
This paper examines the criminal technologies and criminal organization associated with gambling-related computer crimes that occurred in the video lottery terminal industry in the province of Nova Scotia.
In this paper, an analysis was conducted on how one criminal group deployed hacking, cracking, and sleeper programs to defraud video lottery (VL) machines in the province of Nova Scotia by disassembling computer codes and predicting winning outcomes, altering computer memory and storage devices to increase profits for winning combinations, and manipulating computer RAM and ROM to disconnect terminals. The paper begins with a presentation on the criminal organization followed by a discussion on research sources and the presentation of a case-study approach. It continues by providing a detailed examination of the cyber-attacks on electronic gambling machines that occurred in Nova Scotia from 1994 to 1998. The paper concludes with a comparison and contrast of computer crime in the gambling industry with computer crime in other financial services. Notes, references


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