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Racial Animosity, Adversary Effect, and Hate Crime: Parsing Out Injuries in Intraracial, Interracial, and Race-Based Offenses

NCJ Number
Crime & Delinquency Volume: 65 Issue: 4 Dated: 2019 Pages: 447-473
Date Published
27 pages
Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study compared injuries across intraracial, interracial, and bias-motivated offenses.

Although most crime is intraracial, studies suggest that interracial victimization is more injurious. This may be especially true for racially motivated offenses; however, studies of hate crime have not disaggregated which racial dyads are associated with injury, and whether they are more injurious than interracial victimizations generally. Likewise, studies of interracial violence often assume a theoretical framework grounded in racial animosity, but cannot test motivation directly. The current study found differences across racial dyad and the presence of racial animosity; however, the results are largely driven by the race of the offender. Implications for racial animosity theory, adversary effect, and hate crime literatures are discussed. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2019