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Bayesian Approach to Age Estimation in Modern Americans from the Clavicle

NCJ Number
Journal of Forensic Sciences Volume: 55 Issue: 3 Dated: May 2010 Pages: 571-583
Date Published
May 2010
13 pages

Clavicles from 1,289 individuals from cohorts spanning the 20th century were scored with two scoring systems. Transition analysis and Bayesian statistics were used to obtain robust age ranges that are less sensitive to the effects of age mimicry and developmental outliers than age ranges obtained using a percentile approach.


Observer error tests showed that a simple three-phase scoring system proved the least subjective, while retaining accuracy levels. Additionally, significant sexual dimorphism was detected in the onset of fusion, with women commencing fusion at least a year earlier than men (women transition to fusion at approximately 15 years of age and men at 16 years). Significant secular trends were apparent in the onset of skeletal maturation, with modern Americans transitioning to fusion approximately 4 years earlier than early 20th century Americans and 3.5 years earlier than Korean War era Americans. These results underscore the importance of using modern standards to estimate age in modern individuals. 13 figures, 11 tables, and 72 references (Published Abstract)

Date Published: May 1, 2010