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June 1999

Children Exposed to Violence: Criminal Justice Resources

by Helen Connelly

Looking for more information on "Children Exposed to Violence"?
Resources on Children Exposed to ViolenceVisit the Crimevictims.gov’s dedicated web page highlighting the latest resources on children exposed to violence. The page also offers easy-to-find—
Announcement posted April 2012.

Message from
The Director

Hardly a day goes by that we do not read or hear about some tragedy involving children in our community or across the nation. As we listen to stories about how violence has affected our children and our communities, the questions that we continually ask ourselves are why this happened and what can be done to prevent this from happening again.

Today more than ever, the nation is struggling to find answers to the tragedies that have touched our lives and our hearts. In 1998 in the wake of these tragedies, President Clinton launched the Children Exposed to Violence Initiative (CEVI), which is being sponsored by the Department of Justice and directed by Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder. The purpose of this initiative is to focus public attention on the crime and violence that directly affect and confront our children, and to challenge the myriad of agencies, individuals, and organizations that work with these children to come together to break the cycle of violence through enhanced prevention, intervention, and accountability efforts.

To accomplish these goals, CEVI activities center around five specific areas:

. Legislative change to hold perpetrators of violence against children accountable for their actions.

. A public awareness campaign to heighten understanding of the links between early childhood violence and later criminal behavior in order to enhance prevention and intervention efforts.

. Program development activities, such as the new Safe Start Program, that emphasize multidisciplinary approaches for preventing and intervening with crime and violence among children.

. Training and technical assistance programs and services to improve the skills, knowledge, and ability of practitioners to identify and assess child abuse and work with child victims.

. A National Summit to bring together experts from law enforcement, policy development, medicine, mental health, child development, the domestic violence community, and the media to discuss and highlight best practices and develop a plan to replicate these practices nationwide.

CEVI provides a forum for us to answer the questions "why" and "what can be done." Our challenge is to use this opportunity to take a closer look at how we can work together to make a positive impact
in the lives of children. This bulletin brings us one step closer to meeting that challenge by providing important information about the resources, tools, and services that are available to improve our individual and collective response to children who face crime and violence in their lives. I encourage you to read and use this Bulletin to take the next step toward meeting this challenge - to break the cycle of violence.

Kathryn Turman
Acting Director  

Introduction

Every day hundreds of children across the country suffer the consequences of violence - in their homes, in their schools, and in their community. Tragically, names of cities like Littleton, Springfield, Jonesboro, Paducah, Conyers, and Oklahoma City conjure up horrific images of violence that have affected our communities and the lives of our children. Fortunately, these public tragedies are not daily occurrences, although they are occurring with alarming frequency. Unfortunately, every day in this country, children are being victimized or exposed to violence in tragic ways that are often not visible to the public.

Children in this country are more likely to become victims of crime than adults. Of the 22.3 million children between the age of 12 and 17 in this country, at some time in their life about 1.8 million have been the victim of a serious sexual assault, 3.9 million have been the victim of a serious physical assault, and almost 9 million have witnessed serious violence according to the 1997 study conducted by Dean Kilpatrick and Ben Saunders at the Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Medical University of South Carolina. In 1997, child protective service agencies investigated 3 million reports of child abuse, of which just under 1 million cases were substantiated. In addition, 2,200 children are reported missing to law enforcement agencies every day.

A tremendous toll is placed upon children who are victims of and witnesses to crime and violence. These children are at higher risk for developing behavioral problems and academic failure, as well as chronic delinquency and adult criminal behavior. They are more likely to become involved in criminal and drug-related offenses later in life than children who have grown up in peaceful, nonviolent surroundings. They are also more susceptible to physical and psychological problems and consequences.

For adult victims and witnesses of violence, interaction with the criminal justice system can be both traumatic and difficult. For children, contact with the criminal justice system is not only more painful, but it often poses further threat and trauma to an already vulnerable child. The criminal justice system is not designed or fully equipped to accommodate the special needs of children. Many criminal justice professionals find it difficult to work with children. Some tend to discount the impact of violence and crime on a child. "Children are resilient - they bounce back after a tragedy" is what some might say.

Responsibility for the protecting of, intervening with, and providing support and assistance to children exposed to violence often rests with the agencies and organizations that comprise the criminal and juvenile justice systems. Their role and response are critical to the emotional and physical well-being of the child. Too often, agencies are not equipped to provide this type of assistance because they lack the necessary tools, resources, or experience.

Proper training, education, and information about the special needs of children are critical to the investigation and prosecution process, the protection of children, and the integrity and preservation of the case. This bulletin is intended to help address these issues. It provides critical information about resources that are available to help improve the system's response to child victims and witnesses of violence. It provides information about technical assistance and training resources, funding opportunities, resource centers, and publications. This information ensures that practitioners have the necessary tools and support to respond compassionately and effectively when they come into contact with child victims or witnesses in the course of an investigation, prosecution, or trial.

Working with children is demanding and challenging, but it also can be very rewarding. The availability of tools and resources is just one part of the challenge. Accessing them is the key to making positive change in how we work with children in the criminal justice system.
 
 

Technical Assistance and Training Resources

Private Agencies and Organizations Offering Technical Assistance and Training

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children

The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) offers a variety of training and professional education courses to professionals who work with abused and neglected children. APSAC's National Colloquium provides training for professionals on a range of topics relating to child abuse and neglect. APSAC's Advanced Training Institutes offer instruction in 6-hour blocks on topics such as developing courtroom skills for expert testimony in child maltreatment cases, advanced medical evaluation of physical or sexual abuse, coordinated multi- disciplinary approaches, and inter-disciplinary training relating to child fatalities. APSAC also conducts 40-hour Child Forensic Interviewing Clinics that give participants the opportunity to interact with clinicians, researchers, and trainers in the field of forensic child interviewing. Topics include legal issues, forensic interviewing techniques, child development and linguistics, cultural considerations, and problems and pitfalls in inter-viewing. For more information or to register for training, contact APSAC at 312-554-0166 or visit its Web site at http://apsac.org.
 

American Prosecutors Research Institute/National Center for the Prosecution of Child Abuse

The American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI) of the National Center for the Prosecution of Child Abuse provides extensive training, resources, support, and advice to prosecutors, police, social workers, and others involved in the prosecution of child abuse cases. Established in 1984, APRI serves as a resource and clearinghouse for information on the State prosecutorial function. APRI activities center on four major areas: training and curriculum development, technical assistance and consultation, publications, and research. Each year, APRI conducts national training programs for prosecutors, judges, investigators, and other professionals who work with children and youth. Through funding from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), APRI offers an advanced dual track training course for prosecutors in the areas of child exploitation and parental kidnaping. The parental abduction track concentrates on difficult case strategies, resource availability, preventive measures, and recovery techniques. The child exploitation track discusses legal issues pertaining to computer searches and seizures, juvenile prostitution, child pornography, and the emerging threat posed by criminals using Internet technology to victimize children. Monthly, APRI publishes Update, a bulletin that focuses on critical issues relating to child abuse and exploitation. For more information about training or technical assistance, call 703-739-0321 or visit its Web site at http://www.ndaa-apri.org.
 

Fox Valley Technical College

With funding from OJJDP, Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC) provides training and technical assistance to law enforcement officers and investigators, prosecutors, child protective service workers and family service professionals who work with missing and exploited children. Programs are designed to increase skills and abilities, enhance service coordination and delivery, and improve the investigation and handling of missing and exploited children cases. These courses, delivered free-of charge, include the following:

. Responding to Missing and Abducted Children: A course designed for law enforcement officers that focuses on enhancing knowledge and skills relating to the investigation of abducted, run-away, and missing children cases.

. Child Sexual Exploitation Investigations: A course for law enforcement officials, child protective service workers, and other juvenile justice professionals involved in the investigation of child sexual abuse, exploitation, and missing children. The course is designed to increase knowledge and information in order to effectively identify, investigate, and resolve cases of child pornography and sexual exploitation.

. Child Abuse and Exploitation Investigative Techniques:
A course for law enforcement investigators, child protective service professionals, and other juvenile justice system officials involved in the investigation of child exploitation, abuse, and abduction cases. The course is designed to enhance skills and improve the investigation of cases involving child abuse, sexual exploitation of children, child pornography, and missing children.

. Missing and Exploited Children Comprehensive Action Program (M/CAP): A multidisciplinary training and technical assistance program that emphasizes community-wide, interagency collaboration, self-assessment, information sharing, and comprehensive case management to address the needs of and respond to missing and exploited children and their families.

. Child Abuse and Exploitation Team Investigative Process:
A training program for multi-disciplinary teams that focuses on the development and use of a collaborative, community interagency protocol for the investigation of child abuse cases.

FVTC also works with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) to conduct two training programs relating to Internet Crimes Against Children - Protecting Children Online and Protecting Children Online Unit Commander/Policy Training. For more information or to register for these courses, contact FVTC at 800-648-4966 or visit its Web site at http://www.foxvalley.tec.wi.us/ojjdp/.
 

Jimmy Ryce Law Enforcement Training Center Program

The Jimmy Ryce Law Enforcement Training Center (JRLETC), housed at the NCMEC, offers two law enforcement training programs that are designed to improve the national investigative response to missing children cases. The Chief Executive Officer seminar is offered monthly and approaches missing children cases from a management perspective. It provides information regarding coordination and communication issues, resource assessment, legal concerns, and policy development for police chiefs and sheriffs. The Responding to Missing and Exploited Children course offers modules focusing on investigative techniques for all aspects of missing children cases. For information about these offerings, contact NCMEC's training division at 800-THE-LOST (800-843-5678) or visit its Web site at http://www.missingkids.com.
 

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children works to prevent the abduction, molestation, sexual exploitation, and victimization of children and assists in the location and recovery of missing children. Established in 1984, NCMEC is a private, nonprofit organization supported by OJJDP that operates under a congressional mandate in a cooperative agreement with OJJDP. NCMEC serves parents and families of missing and exploited children; local, State, and Federal law enforcement investigators and agencies; child care staff, child protection and social service personnel, criminal justice professionals, and legal practitioners; nonprofit organizations; and the general public. NCMEC offers the following services to aid in the search for a missing child:

. A 24-hour, toll-free hotline (800-THE-LOST or 800-843-5678).

. Technical case management assistance.

. Case analysis and support.

. Age-enhancement, facial reconstruction, and imaging/identification services.

. Photo and poster distribution.

. Infant abduction prevention program.

. International computer network.

. A resource directory of nonprofit organizations.

. Recovery assistance.

. International case assistance.

. A toll-free CyberTipline (800-843-5678).

. Informational analysis services.

. Queries and database searches.

. On-site assistance through Project ALERT (America's Law Enforcement Retiree Team).

NCMEC, in cooperation with OJJDP and FVTC, conducts two training programs that address Internet Crimes Against Children. Protecting Children Online is designed to enhance law enforcement's ability to investigate computer crimes against children by focusing on legal issues, case preparation and followup, proper methods for conducting the investigation, computer technology, resources, and prevention. Protecting Children Online Unit Commander/Policy Training provides law enforcement unit commanders with an overview of the unique challenges involved in cases of child sexual exploitation using computer technologies. For additional information about NCMEC's services and programs, call 800-THE-LOST (800-843-5678) or visit NCMEC's Web site at http://www.missingkids.com.
 

National Children's Alliance

The National Children's Alliance (NCA) is a nonprofit national membership organization that promotes the children advocacy center approach to prevention, intervention, and treatment of child abuse. Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) bring together professionals and agencies as a multidisciplinary team to respond to child abuse allegations and subsequent investigations. NCA provides training, technical assistance, and networking opportunities to communities that are planning child advocacy center programs. Under a cooperative agreement with OJJDP, NCA administers Federal funds for the startup and expansion of CAC. For more information, contact NCA at 202-639-0597 or visit its Web site at http://www.nca/on-line.org.

In addition, OJJDP provides funds to four regional CAC to improve local community response to child abuse by developing and expanding local CAC. Regional CAC conduct training and technical assistance and serve as a resource center for local programs. To obtain additional information about these services, contact your nearest regional CAC. For the Midwest Regional CAC (St. Paul, MN), call 999-422-2955. For the Northeastern Regional CAC (Philadelphia, PA), call 800-662-4124. For the Southern Regional CAC (Huntsville, AL), call 800-747-8122. For the Western Regional CAC (Pueblo, CO), call 800-582-2203.
 

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect

The National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) provides information and up-to-date resources to agencies, organizations, and individuals who work with children and their families. NCCAN's Child Welfare Desk focuses on issues and trends relating to family preservation and reunification, CPS reform, foster care, out-of-home placement, and permanency planning. The Prevention Services Desk provides professionals with information and resources relating to child maltreatment including prevention models, risk factors and effective interventions, funding sources to support programs and services, evaluation materials, and curriculum resources. For more information, call NCCAN at 800-394-3366 or visit its Web site at http://www.calib.com/nccanch.
 

National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) and its research arm, the National Center for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ), provide training, technical assistance, and resource materials to juvenile and family courts on issues relating to child abuse and neglect, family reunification, and permanency planning. In 1995, NCJFCJ developed and published Resource Guidelines: Improving Court Practices in Child Abuse and Neglect Cases. This document describes the critical elements of an effective and properly conducted court hearing, including ways in which courts can manage their caseloads more efficiently to ensure that all children receive a fair, thorough, and speedy court process. For information about training and technical assistance opportunities, contact the NJCFCJ at 702-784-6012, visit its Web site at http://www.ncjfcj.unr.edu/; or contact NCJJ at 412-227-6950 or visit its Web site at http://ncjj.org.
 

National Court Appointed Special Advocate Association

The National Court Appointed Special Advocate Association is supported by OJJDP to help courts establish a Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) volunteer program and to standardize training for volunteer advocates. The CASA program trains volunteer guardians ad litem to perform court-supervised fact-finding in abuse and neglect cases and file independent assessments and reports with the court. In addition, using OJJDP funds, the National CASA Association makes subgrants to develop and strengthen local programs. For more information about the National CASA program, call 206-328-8588 or visit its Web site at http://www. casanet.org.
 

National Resource Center for Safe Schools

The National Resource Center for Safe Schools (NRCSS) is operated under joint sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Justice. The Resource Center provides training, technical assistance, and resources to help communities create safe schools. Information and assistance are available on such topics as the development of school safety plans, conflict resolution strategies and programs, violence prevention strategies, school needs assessments, early warning signs, alcohol and drug prevention programs and strategies, and crisis management plans. To access information about these services, contact NRCSS at 800-547-6339 or visit its Web site at http://www.nwrel.org/safe.
 

National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment

The National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment (NRCCM) was established by the Department of Health and Human Services to provide training and technical assistance to the child maltreatment field. NRCCM assists States, local agencies, and Tribes in enhancing the quality and effectiveness of services for maltreated children and their families. The NRCCM is jointly operated by the Child Welfare Institute and ACTION for Child Protection.

The goal of the NRCCM is to serve publicly supported child protection agencies, including organizations which support persons with disabilities, in developing effective and efficient child protective service organizations. NRCCM provides training, technical assistance, consultation, and information relating to the prevention, identification, intervention and treatment of child abuse and neglect. For information about these services, contact NRCCM at 404-876-1934 or visit its Web site at www.gocwi.org.
 

National Resource Center on Domestic Violence

The National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (NRCDV) was established in 1993 to strengthen support systems for battered women and their children. The primary focus of NRCDV is to support community-based domestic violence programs, State coalitions, policy leaders, the media, and other professionals from Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations so that they serve domestic violence victims and their children more effectively. NRCDV operates a toll-free telephone number to respond to requests for assistance and information. For more information about these services, contact NRCDV through its toll-free numbers (800-537-2238, or TTY: 800-553-2508).
 

Project H.O.P.E. - Help Offer Parents Empowerment

Project H.O.P.E. is a national support network for families of missing children. The program is funded by OJJDP to offer victim parents, law enforcement, and other agencies additional support and services when a child is missing. Begun in 1997, the purpose of Project H.O.P.E. is to provide requesting agencies and families with a trained parent volunteer to assist with the needs of families in crisis. All Project H.O.P.E. parent volunteers have experienced first-hand the trauma of a family abduction, nonfamily abduction, international abduction, or runaway children. The project is being administered by the Public Administration Service (PAS). To access services offered by Project H.O.P.E., call 800-306-6311. For more information about the program, contact PAS at 703-734-8970, ext. 3013.
 

Resource Center on Domestic Violence: Child Protection and Custody

The Family Violence Department of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges operates the Resource Center on Domestic Violence: Child Protection and Custody. The Center provides access to information, materials, consultation, and technical assistance to individuals who work in the field of domestic violence, child protection, and child custody. This includes family court judges, child protection workers, family preservation workers, domestic violence victim advocates, and attorneys. The Center identifies and develops model policies, protocols, and programs that are sensitive to the legal, cultural, and psychological dynamics of child protection and custody cases involving family violence. For information about these services, contact the Center at 800-527-3223 or visit its Web site at http://www.ncjfcj.unr.edu.
 
 

Federal Agencies Offering Technical Assistance and Training

The following Federal agencies provide technical assistance to professionals and practitioners who work with children who have been victimized or exploited.
 

U.S. Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DOD) administers programs that address child abuse and neglect on military installations. In collaboration with the Department of Agriculture, resources of the Army, Navy, and Air Force are merged with those of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Services and the Land Grant Universities to develop education and research programs for the benefit of youth and families on military installations. The DOD also administers the Family Advocacy Program, which provides direct services to military families and works to prevent, report, intervene in, and treat child abuse and neglect. For more information about these services, contact the appropriate service branch listed below:

Army Family Advocacy Program Manager
HQDA, CFSC-FSA
Hoffman #1, Room 1407
Alexandria, VA 22331-0521
Telephone: 703-325-9390
Fax: 703-325-5924

Navy Family Advocacy Program
BUPERS 661
Washington, D.C. 20370-5000
Telephone: 703-697-6616/8/9
Fax: 703-697-6571

Air Force Family Advocacy Division
HQ AFMOA/SGPS
8901 18th Street, Suite 1
Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5217
Telephone: 210-536-2031
Fax: 210-536-9032

Marine Corps Family Advocacy Program
Headquarters USMC
Human Resources Division (Code MHF)
Washington, D.C. 20380-0001
Telephone: 703-696-2066 or 696-1188
Fax: 703-696-1143

Defense Logistics Agency Family Advocacy
Quality of Life Program CAAPQ
8725 John J. Kingman Road, STE 2533
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6221
Telephone: 703-767-5372
Fax: 703-767-5374
 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Administration for Children and Families

The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) administers programs related to the prevention, intervention, treatment, and placement of abused and neglected children. ACF houses the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, which oversees the major Federal programs supporting social services that promote the positive growth and development of children, youth, and families; protective services and shelter for children and youth in at-risk situations; child care for working families and families on public assistance; and adoption of children with special needs. ACF provides assistance to States, community-based organizations, and academic institutions through four Bureau's: the Children's Bureau, Family and Youth Service Bureau, Head Start Bureau, and Child Care Bureau. Training and technical assistance are available through programs administered by the Bureaus and through Clearinghouses. For example, the Children's Justice Act Grant Program, administered by the Children's Bureau, helps States develop, establish, and operate programs to improve the investigation and prosecution of child abuse and neglect cases. To find out more about training and technical assistance opportunities, contact one of the following Clearinghouses:

. National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth
301-608-8098
http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/fysb/programs/ncfy.htm

. National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
800-394-3366
http://www.calib.com/nccanch

. National Adoption Information Clearinghouse
888-251-0075
http://www.calib.com/naic

. National Child Care Information Center
800-616-2242
http://www.ericps.crc.uiuc.edu/nccic
 

U.S. Department of Justice

Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section

The Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) has supervisory responsibility for Federal statutes covering obscenity, child exploitation, child sexual abuse, activities under the Mann Act, sex tourism, missing and abducted children, and child support recovery. CEOS's jurisdiction is limited to the enforcement of Federal statutes.

CEOS is a specialized section comprised of attorneys with expertise in obscenity, child exploitation, and child abuse prosecutions. They work with and provide litigation and support services to the United States Attorneys on child exploitation cases. They also provide domestic and international training for prosecutors, judges, attorneys, law enforcement, and victim service systems. CEOS works with the Victim-Witness offices of the U.S. Attorney's Offices and advises task forces on Child Abuse, Sex Offender Recidivism and Registration, Youth Placement, and Missing and Abducted Children.

CEOS is involved in developing cases using Mann Act statutes, including the interstate or foreign commerce transportation, travel, and enticement of others to travel for criminal sexual activity (rape, child sexual abuse, prostitution, and sex tourism). For additional information about these services, contact CEOS at 202-514-5780.
 

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) exercises its jurisdiction and investigative responsibilities pursuant to Federal statutes addressing various crimes against children, including kidnapping and sexual exploitation. FBI investigations against children generally include violations of Federal statutes relating to child abuse, sexual exploitation of children, intra-state transport of obscene material, computer pornography, interstate transportation of children for sexual activity, parental kidnapping, and violations of the Child Support Recovery Act. During the investigation of these cases, the FBI Victim-Witness Coordinator, located in FBI field offices, can make service referrals in behalf of the child victim. Once the case is indicted, the child's case is given to the Victim-Witness Coordinator in the U.S. Attorney's Office.

The FBI offers training to bona fide law enforcement personnel in a broad spectrum of topics in settings throughout the United States, around the world, and at the FBI Academy. These services can be accessed by contacting the local FBI Field Office.
 

U.S. Attorneys' Offices

The U.S. Attorneys' Offices play a highly important role in the Federal prosecution of a crime. When a child victim of a Federal crime is referred to the U.S. Attorney's Office that is prosecuting the case, the victim is contacted by that office's Victim-Witness Coordinator, who can make a service referral for the child victim. The Victim-Witness Coordinator supports the victim first through the FBI's field office's coordinator during the investigation phase and then the U.S. Attorney's Office's coordinator during the prosecution phase of the case. For information about these services, contact the Victim-Witness Coordinator at your local U.S. Attorney's office.
 

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention provides training and technical assistance to agencies, organizations, and professionals who work with children who are missing and exploited. In addition to many of the training and technical assistance activities described above, the Missing and Exploited Children's Program conducts a national training program for non-profit organizations, law enforcement officials, and other agencies and organizations that handle missing and exploited children; supports other national and State training programs for practitioners and professionals who work with missing and exploited children and their families; and develops and disseminates publications and brochures on a variety of topics relating to child abductions and exploitation. OJJDP supports the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, which serves as a resource and repository for information and research relating to juvenile justice issues. OJJDP's Training and Technical Assistance Division also supports training and technical assistance for law enforcement, juvenile courts, youth service agencies, and child advocacy organizations to strengthen the juvenile justice system. For more information about training and technical assistance opportunities, visit OJJDP's Web site at http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov.
 

Office for Victims of Crime

The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) Training and Technical Assistance Center (TTAC) provides training and technical assistance to the programs and agencies that serve crime victims. TTAC also provides support and help to Federal, State, and local agencies in addressing training, administrative, and programmatic issues affecting victims' issues. OVC's Community Crisis Response can provide rapid response and technical assistance to State VOCA Administrators through requests from: Federal, State, and local criminal justice agencies; U.S. Attorney's Offices; Native American tribes; and other agencies that assist crime victims. OVC's Resource Center provides victim-related information to criminal justice practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and crime victims. For information about the Community Crisis Response program, call 202-307-5983. The OVC Resource Center and TTAC can be reached at 800-627-6872. Information also can be obtained by visiting the OVC Web site at http://www.ovc.gov.
 

U.S. Postal Service

U.S. Postal Inspection Service

The U.S. Postal Inspection Service of the U.S. Postal Service is responsible for investigating crimes involving the U.S. mail, including all child pornography and child sexual exploitation offenses. Specially trained postal inspectors are assigned to each of the 28 field divisions nationwide. Investigative assistance is available to Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies by the Postal Inspection Service. Contact your nearest U.S. Postal Inspection Service Office for further information.
 

U.S. Department of Treasury

U.S. Customs Service

The U.S. Customs Service aggressively targets importers, distributors, and purveyors of child pornography to prevent the sexual exploitation and abuse of children in the U.S. and abroad. The Child Pornography Enforcement Program (CPEP) works closely with the FBI, the Department of Justice's Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children on these cases. The CPEP has primary responsibility for all NCMEC child pornography-related complaints. The NCMEC has established a national toll-free child pornography Tipline (800-THE-LOST, or 800-843-5678) to report information regarding child pornography. NCMEC refers such data directly to the Child Pornography Enforcement Program for dissemination to the appropriate field offices.

The U.S. Customs Service offers training to law enforcement officers who are involved in child pornography investigations and provides investigative support for child pornography investigations. For more information about these services, contact your nearest Customs Service Field Office.
 
 

Funding Sources
 

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20250-2225
202-720-3029
http://www.reeusda.gov

The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) administers a variety of programs that revitalize rural communities and support children, youth, and families. CSREES administers the Children, Youth, and Families At-Risk Program which provides support to community-based programs serving children, youth, and families in at-risk environments. Technical assistance and consultation relating to organization and development issues are available to community-based agencies. For additional information about these services or to obtain assistance, contact your local county extension office, a land-grant university, or CSREES.
 

U.S. Department of Education

Safe and Drug Free Schools Program
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20202-6123
202-260-3954
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS

The Safe and Drug-Free Schools (SDFS) Program is the Federal government's primary vehicle for reducing drug, alcohol, and tobacco use, and violence through education and prevention activities in our nation's schools. SDFS supports initiatives to meet the seventh National Education Goal, which states that by the year 2000 all schools will be free of drugs and violence and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol, and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning. These initiatives are designed to prevent violence in and around schools; to strengthen programs that prevent the illegal use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs and involve parents. The SDFS Program also encourages schools to coordinate with related Federal, State, and community efforts and resources.

The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program consists of two major programs: State Grants for Drug and Violence Prevention Programs, and National Programs. State Grants is a formula grant program that provides funds to State and local education agencies, and Governors, for a wide range of school- and community-based education and prevention activities. National Programs carries out a variety of discretionary initiatives that respond to emerging needs. Among these are direct grants to school districts and communities with severe drug and violence problems, program evaluation, and information development and dissemination.

To obtain information about the funding and grant opportunities and resources that are available, visit the SDFS Web site at http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/sdfs.
 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Children's Bureau

Mary E. Switzer Building
330 C Street, SW
Washington, D.C. 20201
202-205-8618
http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/cb

The Children's Bureau assists States and communities in delivering child welfare services to protect children and strengthen families. The Children's Bureau administers six discretionary grant programs: Adoption Opportunities, Child Welfare Training, Child Welfare Research and Demonstration Projects, Temporary Child Care and Crisis Nurseries, Abandoned Infants Assistance, and Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) Research and Demonstration Projects. The CAPTA Research and Demonstration Projects support research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of child abuse and neglect; demonstration programs to identify the best means for preventing maltreatment and treating troubled families; and the implementation of training programs.

Additionally, the Children's Bureau and its Office of Child Abuse and Neglect administers nine State grant programs: the Title IV-E Foster Care program, the Title IV-E Adoption Assistance program, the Independent Living program, the Family Preservation and Support Services program, the Child Welfare Services program, the Child Abuse and Neglect Basic State Grants, the Medical Neglect/Disabled Infants State Grants, the Community-Based Family Resource Program Grants, and the Children's Justice Act Program.
 

Family and Youth Services Bureau

Mary E. Switzer Building
330 C Street, SW
Washington, D.C. 20201
202-205-8102
http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/fysb

The Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB), housed within ACF, provides national leadership on youth-related issues and helps individuals and organizations to provide comprehensive services for at-risk children and their families. FYSB oversees four major grant programs: the Basic Center Program; Transitional Living Program for Homeless Youth Program; Education and Prevention Grants to Prevent Sexual Abuse of Runaway, Homeless, and Street Youth Program; and Community Schools Youth Services and Supervision Grant Program. FYSB also supports research, demonstration, and evaluation projects that address the needs of at-risk youth and support family education.
 

U.S. Department of Justice

Office for Victims of Crime

Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20531
202-307-5983
http://www.ovc.gov

The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) administers the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) formula/block grant programs and victim assistance grants to benefit victims, training programs for professionals who work with victims. OVC also implements projects to enhance victims rights and services. OVC administers the Crime Victims Fund, which supports direct compensation to victims, a variety of local victim services including domestic violence shelters, children's advocacy centers, mental health counseling, and rape treatment programs. Financing for this Fund comes from criminal fines, forfeited bail bonds, penalty fees, and special assessments collected by U.S. Attorneys, U.S. Courts, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

OVC makes annual awards to State crime victim assistance and compensation programs to supplement State funding for victim services. OVC also manages the Children's Justice Act Grant Program, which provides grants to States and tribes to improve the investigation, prosecution, and handling of child abuse cases.
 

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20531
800-638-8736
http://www.ncjrs.gov/ojjhome.htm

The Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) administers State Formula Grants, State Challenge Grants, and Title V Community Prevention Grants Program. Several OJJDP funded initiatives, including the Safe Kids/Safe Streets and Safe Start demonstration program, focus on the link between childhood victimization and later maltreatment and delinquency. Under the Victims of Child Abuse Act authorization, OJJDP also provides funds to establish and strengthen local CAC. These centers are administered by the National Children's Alliance. Funds are awarded annually for training, technical assistance, and/or program development or support. OJJDP's Missing and Exploited Children's Program also supports program development and research activities that are aimed at preventing childhood victimization and improving the criminal justice system's response to child victims and their families. Finally, OJJDP administers the Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) program, which provide funds to regional ICAC Task Forces to develop and implement strategies to respond to these crimes. For information about OJJDP funding opportunities, visit the grants and funding section on the OJJDP Web site or contact OJJDP's Clearinghouse at the number listed above.
 

Violence Against Women Office

Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20531
202-616-8894
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/vawgo

The Violence Against Women Office (VAWO) administers formula and discretionary grants programs authorized by the Violence Against Women Act of 1994. These grant programs are aimed at enhancing the criminal justice system's response, community coordination, and the delivery of services to women victimized by violence. A special focus is strengthening outreach efforts to minorities including Native Americans and women with disabilities. Several programs, including the STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grants Program and the Rural Domestic Violence and Child Victimization Enforcement Grant Program, are funded by the VAWO and recognize the link between violence against women and mal-treatment. To find out more about these and other funding opportunities, visit the VAWO Web site or contact the agency at the telephone number provided above.
 

Clearinghouses and Resource Centers

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children
407 South Dearborn, Suite 1300
Chicago, IL 60605
Phone: 312-554-0166
Fax: 312-554-0919
URL: http://www.apsac.com
E-mail: APSACEduc@aol.com

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 550
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone: 800-843-5678
TTD: 800-826-7653
Fax: 703-235-4067
URL: http://www.missingkids.com

National Center for Victims of Crime
2111 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone: 703-276-2880
Fax: 703-276-2889
URL: http://www.ncvc.org

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
PO Box 1182
Washington, D.C. 20013-1182
Phone: 800-394-3366
Fax: 703-385-7565
E-mail: nccanch@calib.com
URL: http://www.calib.com/nccanch

National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth
PO Box 13505
Silver Spring, MD 20911-3505
Phone: 301-608-8098
Fax: 301-608-8721
URL: http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/fysb/programs/ncfy/htm

Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse/National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Phone: 800-638-8736
Fax: 301-251-5212
E-mail: askncjrs@ncjrs.gov
URL: http://www.ncjrs.gov

National Organization for Victim Assistance
1757 Park Road, NW
Washington, D.C. 20010
800-879-6682
Phone: 202-232-6682
Fax: 202-462-2255
URL: http://www.try-nova.org/
E-mail: nova@try-nova.org

National Resource Center on Domestic Violence
6400 Flank Drive, Suite 1300
Harrisburg, PA 17112-2778
Phone: 800-537-2238
TTY: 800-553-2508
Fax: 717-545-9456

National Safe Schools Resource Center
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory
101 S. Main Street, Suite 500
Portland, OR 97204-3297
Phone: 800-547-6339, ext. 131
Fax: 503-275-0444
URL: http://www.nwrel.org/safe

Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Phone: 800-627-6872 or 301-519-5500
Fax: 301-519-5212
E-mail: askncjrs@ncjrs.gov
URL: http://www.ncjrs.gov
 

Publications

Listed below are some of the newest publications available from the Federal Government for professionals who work with child victims and witnesses. To obtain free copies of these materials or to inquire about other publications that are available, contact the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) at 800-851-3420. Copies can also be downloaded from the NCJRS Web site (http://www.ncjrs.gov).

Coalition for Juvenile Justice. A Celebration or Wake? The Juvenile Court After 100 Years, Washington, D.C.: Coalition for Juvenile Justice, 1998.

Dwyer, K., E.D. Osher, and C. Warger. Early Warning Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice, 1998.

Federal Agency Task Force for Missing and Exploited Children. Federal Resources on Missing and Exploited Children: A Directory for Law Enforcement and Other Public and Private Agencies. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1997.

Marans, Steven and M. Berkmann. Child Development-Community Policing: Partnership in a Climate of Violence. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1997 (Bulletin).

National Indian Center of Petaluma, CA. Improving Tribal/Federal Prose-cution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases Through Interagency Cooperation. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1998 (Bulletin).

National Council on Juvenile and Family Court Judges. Child Victims Project: Model Courts Status Report. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1997.

Mentaberry, Mary. Model Courts Serve Abused and Neglected Children. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1999 (Fact Sheet).

National Indian Justice Center. Improving Tribal/Federal Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases Through Agency Cooperation. Washington, D.C.: Office for Victims of Crime, 1998 (Bulletin).

Torbet, Patricia and L. Szymanski. State Legislative Responses to Violent Juvenile Crime: 1996-1997 Update. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1998 (Bulletin).

Saywitz, K.J. and K.C. Faller. Interviewing Child Witnesses and Victims of Sexual Abuse. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996.

Turman, K.M. and K.L. Poyer. Child Victims and Witnesses: A Handbook for Criminal Justice Professionals. Washington, D.C.: Office for Victims of Crime, 1998.

Whitcomb, D. and J. Eastin. Joining Forces Against Child Sexual Exploitation: Models for a Multi-jurisdictional Team Approach. Washington, D.C.: Office for Victims of Crime, 1998.

U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice. 1998 Annual Report on School Safety. Washington, D.C.: Office of Special Education Programs, 1998.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Maltreatment 1996: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, D.C.: Author, 1998.

U.S. Department of Justice. Court Appointed Special Advocates: A Voice for Abused and Neglected Children in Court. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1997 (Fact Sheet).

U.S. Department of Justice. In the Wake of Child Maltreatment. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1997 (Bulletin).

U.S. Department of Justice. Legal Interventions in Family Violence: Research Findings and Policy Implications. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1998.

U.S. Department of Justice: New Directions from the Field: Victims Rights and Services in the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Office for Victims of Crime, 1998.

U.S. Department of Justice. New Directions From the Field: Victims' Rights and Services for the 21st Century - Bulletin #18 Child Victims. Washington, D.C.: Office for Victims of Crime, 1998 (Bulletin).

U.S. Department of Justice. A Parents'Guide to Internet Safety. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1998.

U.S. Department of Justice: Portable Guides to Investigating Child Abuse. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1996-1999).

U.S. Department of Justice: When Your Child is Missing: A Family Survival Guide. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1998.
 

The following publications are available from the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect. Unless otherwise indicated, they are free of charge. Additional information about these publications can be obtained by contacting the Clearinghouse at 800-FYI-3366, or by visiting its Web site at http://www.calib.com/nccanch.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Annotated bibliography. Children Who Witness Violence (1996-1999). Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, 1999. ($5.00)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Child Maltreatment 1996: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998. ($10.00)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In Harm's Way: Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1998.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Annotated bibliography. The Link Between Child Abuse and Family Violence: CPS Response. Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1999.
 

The following publications are available from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Single copies are available free of charge by calling NCMEC at 800-THE-LOST or 800-843-5678.

. Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis

. Child Sex Rings: A Behavioral Analysis

. Children Traumatized in Sex Rings

. Family Abduction Guide

. Missing and Abducted Children: A Law Enforcement Guide to Case Investigation and Program Management

. Prostitution of Children and Child-Sex Tourism: An Analysis of Domestic and International Responses

. Recovery and Reunification of Missing Children: A Team Approach
 

The following brochures, part of the Just In Case Series, also are available from NCMEC: . Just in Case. . .Guidelines on Using the Federal Parent Locator Service in Cases of Parental Kidnaping and Child Custody

. Just in Case. . .Parental and Professional Guidelines in Dealing With Grief Following the Loss of a Child

. Just in Case. . .Parental Guidelines in Case You Are Considering Family Separation

. Just in Case. . .Parental Guidelines in Case Your Child Is Testifying in Court

. Just in Case. . .Parental Guidelines in Case Your Child Might Someday Be a Runaway

. Just in Case. . .Parental Guidelines in Case Your Child Might Someday Be Missing

. Just in Case. . .Parental Guidelines in Case Your Child Might Someday Be the Victim of Sexual Abuse or Exploitation

. Just in Case. . .Parental Guidelines in Finding Professional Help in Case Your Child Is Missing or the Victim of Sexual Abuse or Exploitation.
 

NCJ 176984
June 1999   Ms. Connelly is an independent consultant who has worked in the juvenile justice field for almost 30 years. During this time she has worked extensively with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) helping communities and agencies improve their handling of and response to juvenile victims and offenders. She is the author of numerous publications for OJJDP, including the award winning publication titled When Your Child is Missing: A Family Survival Guide, and Federal Resources on Missing and Exploited Children: A Directory for Law Enforcement and Other Public and Private Agencies.